Host and parasite
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The constraints are described. 
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Parasites are relatively deadly

Summary
In this page we summarize the arms race, in a war where both sides use the strategy of development and use of advanced weapon systems to gain an advantage, each advance induces the other side to respond with its own asymmetric advances.  Neither side will necessarily gain the upper hand in which case the weapon systems themselves advance rapidly with little direct benefit for the combatants. 
between hosts and their parasites.  The deadly nature and adaptive pressure of the relationship is introduced.  How the slowly reproducing hosts cope is described.  Cultural hosts and parasites are discussed

Introduction
Hosts must cope with parasitism.  What follows is Matt Ridley's logic from The Red Queen as to how they do it.  Parasites have a deadlier effect than predators because of an
This page introduces a series of asymmetries which encourage different strategic approaches.   
The differences found in business, sexual selection, gamete structure, as well as in chess encourage escalations in the interactions. 
And yet the systems including these asymmetries can be quite stable. 
asymmetry
with the host: There are more of them and Parasites are usually relatively small and reproduce fast.  Parasites aim to bind proteins to host cells enabling entry to the cell.  Hosts aim to stop the binding proteins from working.  Parasites build new keys.  Hosts change the locks. 

The adaptive pressure of the parasite-host arms race 
The near deadly nature of the relationship between hosts and parasites generates an
This page reviews the strategy of setting up an arms race.  At its core this strategy depends on being able to alter, or take advantage of an alteration in, the genome or equivalent.  The situation is illustrated with examples from biology, high tech and politics. 
arms race
which then contributes to the highly competitive complex adaptive system (
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
) in which they each participate. 

Slow moving hosts must be able to change fast
As parasites will have evolved to build new binding keys, the host must change.  There are five ways to do that:
  1. Plants grow and divide fast enough to leave the parasites behind.  
  2. Chemical defense is used by plants, insects and amphibians poisoning the parasite as it interacts with the host.  This is part of the reason why giant trees can live so long. 
  3. Immune system has to support and protect an inventory of host cell types, detect and respond to invaders and maintain the symbiont equilibrium within the microbiome.  It detects microbes which have breached the secreted mucus barrier, driving them back and fortifying the barrier.  It culls species within the microbiome that are expanding beyond requirements.  It destroys invaders who make it into the internal transport networks.  As part of its initialization it has immune cells which suppress the main system to allow the microbiome to bootstrap.  The initial microbiome is tailored by the antibodies supplied from the mother's milk while breastfeeding.  The immune system consists of two main parts the older non-adaptive part and the newer adaptive part.  The adaptive part achieves this property by being schematically specified by DNA which is highly variable.  By rapid reproduction the system recombines the DNA variable regions in vast numbers of offspring cells which once they have been shown not to attack the host cell lines are used as templates for interacting with any foreign body (antigen).  When the immune cell's DNA hyper-variable regions are expressed as y-shaped antibody proteins they typically include some receptor like structures which match the surfaces of the typical antigen.  Once the antibody becomes bound to the antigen the immune system cells can destroy the invader. 
    .  This is a relatively modern development initially deployed in reptiles.  It has limitations but these can be supported by (4).  Immune cells (leukocytes are produced by hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are a major part of the adaptive immune system.  Five types have been identified:
    1. Basophils,
    2. Eosinophils,
    3. Lymphocytes,
    4. Monocytes,
    5. Neutrophyls.  
    ) come in 10 million different types -- each with a protein lock (antibody is a y-shaped blood transported protein generated by the adaptive immune system's plasma cells, B lymphocytes, to accurately identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses that exhibit a matching antigen. 
    ) corresponding to a key carried by a pathogen (antigen).  If the key enters the lock the leukocyte are produced by hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow and are a major part of the adaptive immune system.  Five types have been identified:
    1. Basophils,
    2. Eosinophils,
    3. Lymphocytes,
    4. Monocytes,
    5. Neutrophyls.  
    multiplies aggressively to gobble up the key-carrying invader.   But since it would be too costly to keep armies of each antibody-lock leukocyte ready for all the potential keys the body's immune system keeps just a few copies of each and then reproduces on detection.  Since the parasites are changing keys as they reproduce the immune system uses a random process to generate its army of antibody types.  And some of the locks built by the random process match host cell signals!  So host cells have a password that stops the immune system attack.  To win the parasite must either:
    • Infect some other host by the time the immune system attacks.  
    • Conceal itself in a password protected host cell. 
    • Change its key frequently. 
    • Imitate the host cell's password.  Selection pressure drives pathogens to mimic passwords and for hosts to change them.  Sex helps with changing the passwords. 
  4. Sex - allows for lots of different passwords, (via the variability of the histocompatibility genes) and locks, and preserves the diversity of successful locks as long as there is value in fending off disease.  But sexual reproduction is a costly operation.  In How the Mind Works Steven Pinker notes that an
    This page describes the consequences of the asymmetries caused by eggs having to include resources required for the development of sexually reproduced organisms while sperms do not.   
    The impact of this asymmetry is to force alternative strategies on males and females.  The strategies are outlined. 
    asymmetry between egg and sperm
    is required to avoid two sets of mitochondria are the energy molecule generating production functions of eukaryotic cells.  They are vestigial blue-green bacteria with their own DNA and infrastructure.  Unlike stand-alone bacteria they also use the eukaryotic host DNA and infrastructure for some functions.  The high energy molecules are nucleotides with a high energy phosphate bond.  The most used high energy molecule is Adenosine-tri-phosphate.   waring with each other within the new
    This page reviews the implications of reproduction initially generating a single child cell.  The mechanism and resulting strategic options are discussed. 
    organism
    .  In The Red Queen Matt Ridley argues that sex is justified by its support of the immune system of long lived hosts battling rapidly reproducing predators and parasites.  This is because sexual reproduction:
    • Ensures every individual is unique.  
    • Ensures all successful genes contribute to the gene pool through mixing. 
    • It constrains human design towards one goal - reproductive success.  
    • The longer the host's generation time the more genetic mixing they need to combat their parasites. 
  5. Operate asexually but ingest and leverage prey's
    Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
    schematic plans
    to create diversity like the Bdelloid Rotifers and some cultural superorganisms

Cultures are big and have parasites
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
Memetic
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
can use exchange to support cultural evolution.  But as it enables large
E. O. Wilson & Bert Holldobler illustrate how bundled cooperative strategies can take hold.  Various social insects have developed strategies which have allowed them to capture the most valuable available niches.  Like humans they invest in specialization and cooperate to subdue larger, well equipped competitors. 
superorganisms
to
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emerge
these must also cope with cultural parasites. 

Matt Ridley demonstrates the creative effect of man on the World.
Natural selection of culture
depends on bubble up evolution with exchange making cultural evolution cumulative.  That enables adding to habits generation after generation without needing to change the genes much.  Hence more niches can be entered successfully.  This could support the existence of more people.  But it is also be open to cultural parasitism. Focusing too much money on preventing aging may be a poor investment for the culture overall.  And the competition of capable and powerful adults with their offspring could undermine the success of subsequent generations. 


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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
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  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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