Arts technology & intelligence
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
Primary Navigation

Arts, technology & Intelligence



Summary
Isaacson uses the historic development of the global cloud of web services to explore Ada refers to Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace and, in deference to her memory, is the name of a computer programming language used in developing military systems during the late 1970s and beyond.   Lovelace's ideas about thinking machines and poetic science.  He highlights the value of computer augmented human creativity and the need for liberal arts to fulfill the process. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of agent networks and collaboration are discussed. 

The Innovators
In Walter Isaacson's book 'The Innovators' he chronicles the development is a phase during the operation of a CAS agent.  It allows for schematic strategies to be iteratively blended with environmental signals to solve the logistical issues of migrating newly built and transformed sub-agents.  That is needed to achieve the adult configuration of the agent and optimize it for the proximate environment.  Smiley includes examples of the developmental phase agents required in an emergent CAS.  In situations where parents invest in the growth and memetic learning of their offspring the schematic grab bag can support optimizations to develop models, structures and actions to construct an adept adult.  In humans, adolescence leverages neural plasticity, elder sibling advice and adult coaching to help prepare the deploying neuronal network and body to successfully compete. 
of the theory and practice of computing, packet switched networking, and World Wide Web infrastructure.  He uses the network of interacting activities to compare and contrast the development of artificial intelligence (AI) and augmented human intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others


And using Ada refers to Ada Byron, Countess of Lovelace and, in deference to her memory, is the name of a computer programming language used in developing military systems during the late 1970s and beyond.   Lovelace's writings on 'poetical science' he explores Steve Job's assertion that 'technology alone is not enough--that it's technology married with liberal arts, married with the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  , that yields us the result that makes our heart sing.' 

Isaacson describes the many key contributors to the development of: the computer, programming, the Transistor, the microchip, video games, the Internet, the Personal Computer, software, wide-area online access, the Web; and their achievements.  Then he returns to Lady Lovelace's assertions.  In particular he reviews her visionary reflections on:
  1. No computer, no matter how powerful, would ever truly be a "thinking" machine. 
  2. Poetical science. 
Regarding thinking machines
Isaacson notes Alan Turing's interest in artificial intelligence and "Lady Lovelace's Objection".  Turing famously proposed an
John Searle's influential thought experiment implied to him that computers cannot understand.  Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory indicates that this is not the case. 
operational test of "thinking"
.  Turing assumed that digital computers would pass the test within twenty years.  But sixty years on Isaacson concludes there is little concrete progress. 

Isaacson adds that Von Neumann, John was a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who published the earliest paper specifying architecture for digital computing.  It ensured this computing architecture was not patentable.  The architecture has a central processing unit (CPU), random access storage addressable by the CPU and a sequencer.  The architecture encourages a serial software architecture that matches the logic of the sequencer and processing operations on program and data.  Von Neumann, his history, computing architecture and some alternative architecture are reviewed by Melanie Mitchell. 
conjectured that progress would require his namesake architecture to be replaced by a hybrid of analog and digital operations. 

In general Isaacson notes the limited progress that has been made in computer architectures for artificial intelligence.  In part he notes this should not be a surprise.  Tomaso Poggio of MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.   admits "We do not yet understand how the brain gives rise to intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
, nor do we know how to build machines that are broadly intelligent as we are."  And while Douglas Hofstadter argues 'meaningful AI requires understanding how human imagination works' Isaacson suggests Hofstadter's approach was mostly abandoned in the 1990s as researchers adopted compute intensive strategies, as these were enabled by Moore's law, Gordon Moore characterized the two yearly doubling of the number of transistors in each new generation of integrated circuit. 
, to simulate the effects of intelligence.  

Additionally Isaacson writes that carbon based intelligence is analog and digital, is distributed and massively parallel in operation.  He is skeptical of Bill Gates claim that 'eventually we'll be able to sequence the human genome and replicate how nature did intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
in a carbon based system.  But he notes that IBM and QUALCOMM have announced neuromorphic processors implement Carver Mead's goal of using analog circuits integrated within VLSI to mimic the biological architectures present in neural circuits.  

Isaacson is more encouraged by the approach and progress of human computer symbiosis is a long term situation between two, or more, different agents where the resources of both are shared for mutual benefit.  Some of the relationships have built remarkable dependencies: Tremblaya's partnership with citrus mealybugs and bacterial DNA residing in the mealybug's genome, Aphids with species of secondary symbiont bacteria deployed sexually from a male aphid sperm reservoir and propagated asexually by female aphids only while their local diet induces a dependency.  If the power relations and opportunities change for the participants then they will adapt and the situation may transform into separation, predation or parasitism. 
.  He sees an accelerating filling in of Vannevar Bush was a professor of engineering -- dean of the MIT School of Engineering, a founder while a student of Raytheon and the top science administrator to President F.D. Roosevelt.  He developed the Differential Analyzer, encouraged Claude Shannon to study genetics, promoted the education-industrial-military complex arguing university and industrial labs should be contracted to develop government research and set the vision of the World Wide Web with his Atlantic article 'As We May Think' outlining the memex. 
's visionary 'As we may think'.  In particular he notes that tools including the Google search engine and IBM's Watson is IBM's computer augmented human intelligence service. 
are not artificially intelligent but use programming and network data to augment human decision making. 

For Isaacson this approach is far more productive than the AI alone strategy. 

Regarding poetical science
Isaacson notes that Lady Lovelace considered poetry and art as supporting the
Good ideas are successful because they build upon prior developments that have been successfully implemented.  Johnson demonstrates that they are phenotypic expressions of memetic plans subject to the laws of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
creativity
that allowed her to imagine a future of computers supporting music and literature as well as mathematics.  He notes that Steve Jobs always contended that design required more than science and technology.  Thinking different was supported by liberal arts and technology. 

Other implications of the journey from Lady Lovelace's work to the third wave of computers
Isaacson lists eight additional conclusions:
  1. Good ideas are successful because they build upon prior developments that have been successfully implemented.  Johnson demonstrates that they are phenotypic expressions of memetic plans subject to the laws of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
    Creativity
    is a collaborative process. 
  2. Ideas handed down from previous ages are basis for current computing revolutions. 
  3. Physical proximity is helpful to creativity. 
  4. Pairing of visionary and operational people helps creativity. 
  5. Three ways to put together teams:
    1. Government funded programs such as the ENIAC and ARPANET. 
    2. Private enterprises with profit as the key driver.  Isaacson's examples include: Bell labs, Xerox, TI, Intel, Atari, Google, Microsoft and Apple. 
    3. Peers freely sharing ideas in an information commons.  Isaacson's examples include the sharing of scientific procedures and findings by the association for the advancement of science and the Homebrew computer club that Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak attended. 
  6. Visionaries need value delivery systems to innovate is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation. 
    .  
  7. Man is a social animal. 
  8. Tools are not social. 

Complex adaptive system
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
(CAS) theory
supports reasoning about
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergence
and
Tools and the businesses that produce them have evolved dramatically.  W Brian Arthur shows how this occurred.
tool enhanced
systems. 


In regard to thinking machines Dawkin's
Richard Dawkin's explores how nature has created implementations of designs, without any need for planning or design, through the accumulation of small advantageous changes. 
argues
that the creation of life was a hard problem and likely has only occurred once.  Deacon
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
describes a potential mechanism
.  Once it had happened the laws of physics and chemistry were augmented by the laws of CAS.  These supported the emergence of
Consciousness has confounded philosophers and scientists for centuries.  Now it is finally being characterized scientifically.  That required a transformation of approach. 
Realizing that consciousness was ill-defined neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene and others characterized and focused on conscious access. 
In the book he outlines the limitations of previous psychological dogma.  Instead his use of subjective assessments opened the window to contrast totally unconscious brain activity with those including consciousness. 
He describes the research methods.  He explains the contribution of new sensors and probes that allowed the psychological findings to be correlated, and causally related to specific neural activity. 
He describes the theory of the brain he uses, the 'global neuronal workspace' to position all the experimental details into a whole. 
He reviews how both theory and practice support diagnosis and treatment of real world mental illnesses. 
The implications of Dehaene's findings for subsequent consciousness research are outlined. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the brain's development and operation introduce constraints which are discussed. 

consciousness
and
Reading and writing present a conundrum.  The reader's brain contains neural networks tuned to reading.  With imaging a written word can be followed as it progresses from the retina through a functional chain that asks: Are these letters? What do they look like? Are they a word? What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? What does it mean?  Dehaene explains the importance of education in tuning the brain's networks for reading as well as good strategies for teaching reading and countering dyslexia.  But he notes the reading networks developed far too recently to have directly evolved.  And Dehaene asks why humans are unique in developing reading and culture. 

He explains the cultural engineering that shaped writing to human vision and the exaptations and neuronal structures that enable and constrain reading and culture. 

Dehaene's arguments show how cellular, whole animal and cultural complex adaptive system (CAS) are related.  We review his explanations in CAS terms and use his insights to link cultural CAS that emerged based on reading and writing with other levels of CAS from which they emerge. 

writing
which both allow ideas to become
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
memetic structures
and subject to similar
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolutionary
pressures. 

Hofstadter's theoretical work on
This page discusses the interdependence of perception and representation in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Hofstadter and Mitchell's research with Copycat is reviewed. 
perception and representation
and Neuroscientists such as
Consciousness has confounded philosophers and scientists for centuries.  Now it is finally being characterized scientifically.  That required a transformation of approach. 
Realizing that consciousness was ill-defined neuroscientist Stanislas Dehaene and others characterized and focused on conscious access. 
In the book he outlines the limitations of previous psychological dogma.  Instead his use of subjective assessments opened the window to contrast totally unconscious brain activity with those including consciousness. 
He describes the research methods.  He explains the contribution of new sensors and probes that allowed the psychological findings to be correlated, and causally related to specific neural activity. 
He describes the theory of the brain he uses, the 'global neuronal workspace' to position all the experimental details into a whole. 
He reviews how both theory and practice support diagnosis and treatment of real world mental illnesses. 
The implications of Dehaene's findings for subsequent consciousness research are outlined. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the brain's development and operation introduce constraints which are discussed. 

Dehaene's experiments on conscious access
, following Crick and Koch, show how the brain develops to understand its local environment and then performs conscious operations.  Poggio's comment "We do not yet understand how the brain gives rise to intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
, nor do we know how to build machines that are broadly intelligent as we are" is being undermined. 

The elucidation of these mechanisms illustrates how Bill Gates proposal 'to sequence the human genome and replicate how nature did intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
in a carbon based system' could be implemented.  The architecture of an
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agent
is 'relatively' straight forward.  Indeed Rob's strategy studio (RSS) describes a
This page discusses the interdependence of perception and representation in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Hofstadter and Mitchell's research with Copycat is reviewed. 
Copycat
based architecture used to enable the emergence of such agents that execute on a standard Intel processor.  But there are major challenges:


So we agree with Isaacson that augmentation is far more practical than emulation and AI.  Never-the-less Haikonen's work on
Haikonen juxtaposes the philosophy and psychology of consciousness with engineering practice to refine the debate on the hard problem of consciousness.  During the journey he describes the architecture of a robot that highlights the potential and challenges of associative neural networks. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory is then used to illustrate the additional requirements and constraints of self-assembling evolved conscious animals.  It will be seen that Haikonen's neural architecture, Smiley's Copycat architecture and molecular biology's intracellular architecture leverage the same associative properties. 

sentient robots
demonstrates progress in the exploration of AI. 


Poetical science highlights that we are sentient animals with
Read Montague explores how brains make decisions.  In particular he explains how:
  • Evolution can create indirect abstract models, such as the dopamine system, that allow
  • Life changing real-time decisions to be made, and how
  • Schematic structures provide encodings of computable control structures which operate through and on incomputable, schematically encoded, physically active structures and operationally associated production functions. 
senses and emotions integrated deeply into our operational architecture
.  Jobs' insights clarify the challenges of innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation. 
.  But the emergent agent architecture is based on execution of
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
schematic plans
that encode recipes the agents use to decide what to do. 
Good ideas are successful because they build upon prior developments that have been successfully implemented.  Johnson demonstrates that they are phenotypic expressions of memetic plans subject to the laws of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Creativity
and algorithms must go hand in hand. 


Whenever agents collaborate to enable an emergent entity they must cope with the pulls of cooperation and competition with their partners. 
Peter Turchin describes how major pre-industrial empires developed due to effects of geographic boundaries constraining the empires and their neighbors' interactions.  Turchin shows how the asymmetries of breeding rates and resource growth rates results in dynamic cycles within cycles.  After the summary of Turchin's book complex adaptive system (CAS) theory is used to augment Turchins findings. 
Turchin
describes how the asymmetries of breeding rates and resource growth rates results in cycles within cycles.  For RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio this frames the lifecycle challenges of any agent and it means that decisions about using collaboration will depend on the position within the cycle.  For example once Apple had chosen a viable personal computer strategy based on end-to-end control near the start of a cycle IBM could use the product template but build a collaborative ecosystem which was much better able to explore all the accessible niches on the edge of chaos.  But
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
phenotypic alignment
then trapped IBM and its partners Microsoft and Intel.  A new turn around the cycle occurred with the opportunity of a radical new phone design. It was beyond such a broad and constrained eco-system as Microsoft's to accept.  But only Jobs had to decide what could and would be done at Apple. 

The most extreme and important contrary examples to collaborative creativity are Darwin, Galileo and Einstein.  Darwin developed his ideas of evolution in secret because his supervisors and peers were deeply invested in contrary viewpoints.  The Church's
An epistatic meme suppressed for a thousand years reemerges during the enlightenment. 
It was a poem encapsulating the ideas of Epicurus rediscovered by a humanist book hunter. 
Greenblatt describes the process of suppression and reemergence.  He argues that the rediscovery was the foundation of the modern world. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the memetic mechanisms are discussed. 

thousand year suppression of Epicurus
demonstrates the potential risks he faced. 

Hofstadter describes the difficulty Galileo faced in identifying the right details from the fog of claims that were accepted during his time.  In part he had to be able to
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
ignore the valuation that important and respected people placed
on each detail. 


Both IBM and
A government sanctioned monopoly supported the construction of a superorganism American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).  Within this Bell Labs was at the center of three networks:
  1. The evolving global scientific network. 
  2. The Bell telephone network.  And
  3. The military industrial network deploying 'fire and missile control' systems. 
Bell Labs strategically leveraged each network to create an innovation engine. 
They monitored the opportunities to leverage the developing ideas, reorganizing to replace incumbent opposition and enable the creation and growth of new ideas. 
Once the monopoly was dismantled AT&T disrupted. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the innovation mechanisms are discussed. 

AT&T
demonstrate that profit is not always a primary goal of innovative corporations.  Indeed
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
Christensen shows
that profit seeking induces the Innovators Dilemma.  For different reasons IBM and AT&T were primarily interested in market share and monopoly rents.  At the start of a creative life cycle this is very helpful in bootstrapping.  However during the middle stages a market will allow more niches to be explored.  Central control sometimes risks morphing into the distortions of
H. A. Hayek compares and contrasts collectivism and libertarianism. 
central planning
.  That is the great benefit of antitrust legislation.  Even if it is rarely used the threat can open access to the market mechanism. 


Peer sharing is seen as enabled by the web.  It seems to be viewed as a laudable and creative process by Isaacson.  However, from a CAS perspective there is something badly wrong with the architecture.  Even when cells aggregate together to form some emergent organ they retain the details of their operation.  They share signals with other cells they are cooperating with but not their overall state.  But with the PC is personal computer
, tablet, phone and browser applications people are using a tool that is as much part of the infrastructure services as it is their own tool.  It is as if a parasite is a long term relationship between the parasite and its host where the resources of the host are utilized by the parasite without reciprocity.  Often parasites include schematic adaptations allowing the parasite to use the hosts modeling and control systems to divert resources to them.   had effectively invaded!  Added to the powerful
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
network effects
driving positive returns and there is a highly problematic asymmetry alluded to by Jaron Lanier


The Innovators provides a wealth of background about the developments that led to the
Brynjolfsson and McAfee explore the effects of Moore's law on the economy.  They argue it has generated exponential growth.  This has been due to innovation.  It has created a huge bounty of additional wealth.  But the wealth is spread unevenly across society.  They look at the short and long term implications of the innovation bounty and spread and the possible future of technology. 

Following our summary of their arguments RSS comments from the perspective of CAS theory. 

second machine age
.  It also raises important questions about how we approach organizing to leverage intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
, creativity and innovation. 

.
Market Centric Workshops
The Physics - Politics, Economics & Evolutionary Psychology
Politics, Economics & Evolutionary Psychology

Business Physics
Nature and nurture drive the business eco-system
Human nature
Emerging structure and dynamic forces of adaptation


integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
| Design |
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Program Management
| Home

Profiles | Papers | Glossary | E-mail us