Air warrior
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Air warrior

Summary
Robert Coram highlights the noble life of John Boyd.  John spent a lot of time alone during his childhood.  He: excelled at swimming and was a lifeguard, enlisted in the Army Air Corp while at school which rejected him for pilot training, was part of the Japan occupation force where he swam; so the US is the United States of America.   paid for him to attend University of Iowa, where he: joined the Air Force Officers' training corps, was accepted to be an Air Force pilot, and got engaged to Mary Bruce. 

Boyd trained at Nellis AFB to become a combat ready pilot in the Korean War

While the US Air Force focused on Strategic bombing, Boyd loved dogfights.  His exceptional tactical are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
ability was rewarded with becoming an instructor.  Boyd created new ways to think about dogfighting and beat all-comers by using them in the F-100 Hun was a US Air Force fighter, manufactured by North American, which was designed to be a tactical fighter armed with guns, but was compromised by SAC extensions to its mission.  It was, explains Robert Coram, unforgiving of mistakes; one wrong control move, one moment of inattention, and the F-100 would "depart flight" usually by a sixty-degree pitch-up followed by a hard roll that turned into an out-of-control spin.  It was exceptional for air-to-air combat decelerating rapidly and would still fly at zero airspeed.  It had a serious design flaw: adverse yaw, where additional application of aileron caused the F-100 to roll violently in the opposite direction, because at low airspeeds and high angle of attack, the down aileron produced more drag than lift.  To avoid the problem pilots were taught to use the rudder as the primary control for both roll and turn rather than move the stick laterally at high angle of attack and low airspeed.  It also required skilled maintenance when the Air Force was laying-off some of its most skilled mechanics.  .  He was noticed and enabled by Spradling.  As he trained, and defeated the top pilots from around the US and allied base network, his reputation spread.  But he needed to get nearer to the hot spring in Georgia, and when his move to Tyndall AFB was blocked he used the AFIT is the US Air Force Institute of Technology, a scholarship program to support personnel studying to obtain advanced degrees.  The Sputnik crisis identified a need to train engineers for a US response, which forced a broadening of the AFIT program to include undergraduate engineering degrees and a loosening of the constraints. 
to train in engineering at Georgia tech.  While preparing to move he documented his FWS training and mentored Ronald Catton was a US fighter pilot, FWS instructor, friend of John Boyd who mentored him through a DWI to gain top marks in every aspect of his FWS exams, and Vietnam ace.  Robert Coram explains that Catton arrived as a flight leader in the 433rd Tactical Fighter Squadron.  He flew many missions and pushed for risk taking and results.  Leading a flight of four F-4s on a bombing mission that was diverted to a training area for enemy troops, Catton setup the F-4s in a wagon wheel over the heavily defended target.  The flight flew low and took ground fire and flak.  The base was destroyed earning Major Catton a Silver Star.  On his 94th mission, providing air cover for Thuds, Catton ignored the feint MiG attacks and then deployed the F-4s against the main MiG thrust.  All targets were bombed.  All the F-105s returned to home base.  But Catton decided to celebrate with formation victory rolls and two F-4s were lost.  Catton lost a second Silver Star, and instead of being transferred to Nellis AFB as an instructor as had been planned, he was sent to the Pentagon on probation.  Boyd was confident he would pull through which he did.  He became a full colonel and a wing commander, and was being fast tracked for general with a transfer to the War College.  But his wife was diagnosed with cancer so he retired early to take care of her.  After the Air Force, Catton became a multimillionaire financial consultant in Spokane, Washington. 
.  While there he first realized the link between energy is total energy/weight. 
and maneuverability is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
At Eglin, in partnership with Tom Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, he developed tools to model the link.  They developed comparisons of US and Soviet aircraft which showed the US aircraft performing poorly.  Eventually General Sweeney was briefed on the theory and issues with the F-105 Thud was a tactical nuclear aircraft
, F-4 Phantom was a US Navy Interceptor, manufactured by McDonnell-Douglas, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics to support carrier operation and storage.  Robert Coram explains it was no match for a MiG: big, heavy with twin-engines and no guns for use in air-to-air combat and its missiles: Sidewinder; were virtually useless in a tight turning fight. 
, and F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 


Sent to the Pentagon to help save the F-X budget, Boyd joined forces with Pierre Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
to pressure procurement into designing and building tactically exceptional aircraft: a CAS is:
  • Close Air Support by the Air Force of ground troops.  CAS aircraft: US A-1, A-10 , Cheyenne helicopter, Stuka; target tanks, bridges etc. to limit the operations of the enemy ground forces and enable movement by friendly forces. 
  • Complex Adaptive System is an emergent, complex system which leverages evolution to iteratively plan and execute activites by agents. 
tank killer and a lightweight maneuverable is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
fighter.  The navy aligned with Senators of states with navy bases, prepared to sink the F-X and force the F-14 Tomcat is a US Navy Interceptor, a second generation swing wing aircraft, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics due to the infrastructure to support the wing.  Robert Coram explains it is a "lumbering, poor-performing, aerial truck.  It weighs about fifty-four thousand pounds.  Add on external fuel tanks and missiles and the weight is about seventy thousand pounds.  It is what fighter pilots call a 'grape': squeeze it in a couple of hard turns and all the energy oozes out.  That energy cannot be quickly regained, and the aircraft becomes an easy target." 
on the Air Force.  Boyd saved the plane from the Navy and the budget from Congress, ensuring the Air Force executive and its career focused hierarchy had the freedom to compromise on a budget expanding over-stuffed F-X (F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
).  Boyd requested to retire, in disgust is a universal human emotion.  Pinker notes it has its own facial expression and is codified in food taboos.  The mind must be associated with the proximate environment and parents minimize the risk for their omnivorous children by teaching them what foods to eat and what to avoid.  The children's minds are initially receptive to trying all foods but their brains subsequently lock in on the foods they have experienced.  These parental choices are affected by schematic influence on what has been beneficial.  Adolescent's brain developments undermine these constraints enabling intergroup transfers.  Disgust is modulated by the insula cortex which projects signals to the amygdala.  Adult humans merge moral and physical disgust enabling metaphorical out grouping. 
.  Amid mounting hostility from the organizational hierarchy Boyd and Sprey secretly developed specifications for building prototype lightweight fighters with General Dynamics: YF-16; and Northrop: YF-17; and enabled by Everest Riccioni was an emotional Italian, who flew P-38s and P-51s in World War II, got an undergraduate degree in aeronautical engineering and a master's degree in applied mathematics, went to MIT to do a PhD in astronautical engineering, and became an instructor at the Air Force Academy.  Robert Coram notes he wrote Tigers Airborne, which the Air Force asked John Boyd, as author of Aerial Attack Study, to critique.  Boyd argued pilots should be exposed to a broad set of ideas about tactics, and would not criticize Riccioni, although he disagreed with his conclusions.  Subsequently at the Pentagon, he held an R&D post where he could contract for research studies.  He accepted Boyd's arguments that the F-14 was a dog so the Navy would be looking to replace it and the F-15 would be overly expensive and so be threatened by Congress and the Navy, that the Air Force needed a high potential backup.  Riccioni developed a vision of a lightweight fighter built around the F-15 engine, which he enabled with letter to the R&D general warning of the Navy threat and asking for funding for a "Study to Validate the Integration of Advanced Energy-Maneuverability Theory with Trade-Off analysis."  Riccioni teamed with Boyd and Sprey in the Fighter Mafia to secretly develop a lightweight fighter, enabling the funding of design studies for the YF-16 and YF-17.  But he could not keep his activity secret and once it became aware the Air Force transferred Everest to Korea. 
.  

David Packard announced a budget of $200 million for the services to spend on prototypes.  Pierre Sprey's friend Lyle Cameron picked a short takeoff and landing transport aircraft and Boyd's lightweight fighter to prototype

Boyd was transferred to Thailand as Vice Commander of Task Force Alpha at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai AFB, was a Vietnam era covert program sponsored by McNamara's technocrats, which aimed to use various types of sensors deployed along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, to monitor and model the operations of the North's resupply network into South Vietnam.  It cost $2.5 billion, deploying a huge IBM computer installation in a massive underground building.  But, while it commanded a large DOD budget, and was very profitable for IBM, it could not model the inputs fast enough to provide useful targeting details and was shut down on the recommendation of vice commander John Boyd explains Robert Coram. 
, inspector general and equal opportunity training officer; roles in which he excelled.  And he started working on his analysis of creativity: Destruction and Creation was John Boyd's brief and paper on creativity and learning theory - where he explored the relationship between the observer and what is observed and how that relationship can creatively change as the mind dynamically constructs entities and relationships between them.  Boyd stresses we can catalyze the process if we then break and rearrange the relationships, a mental mechanism explained systematically by Hofstadter.  Boyd notes introspection of the creation identifies imperfections which he concludes can be inherent consequences of: Godel's theorem, uncertainty of atomic observations, entropy; to which CAS theory would add contributions: frozen accidents, uncomputable decisions, the autogenic ratchet, unknowable future of strategies seeking niches at the edge of chaos, and consciousness recreating it; at macroscale.  Robert Coram shows Boyd's own experiences linking this mental process and physical processes that can be aligned in new creations.  For the physical instantiations to be realized as innovations, constraints must be thrown off allowing the destruction of the old framework and progress towards the new.  In Boyd's situation the 'old' was important to the Air Force hierarchy who worked to maintain the extended phenotypical alignment, but the 'new' could be developed if powerful executives: chief of staff, congressional leader, defense secretary; were aware of the possibility and needed the change to occur, and Boyd was supported by a network of complementary personalities.  Boyd felt the goal of creation was to gain independence, but this is likely a reflection of his powerful gut 'challenger' personality type, and experience working within a power hierarchy.  Our genes demand survival long enough to reproduce. 
.  But on completion of the tour Boyd was apparently abandoned and sent to run a dead end office at the Pentagon. 

The power hierarchy moved to protect the F-15, but: Boyd, Christie, Schlesinger, and the Air Force chief of staff; kept the lightweight fighter budgeted and aligned with Boyd's requirements in a covert campaign.  The Air Force threw a phalanx of developers at the F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 
, distorting Boyd's concept.  He accepted he had lost the fight and retired from the Air Force. 

Shifting to scholarship Boyd reflects on how rigidity must be destroyed to enable creative new assemblies.  He uses the idea to explain the operational success of the YF16 and F-86 Sabre was a Korean War US fighter aircraft, with swept wings and a bubble canopy which directly descended from the German jet designs captured by the US and Soviet Union at the end of the Second World War.  Robert Coram asserts it was the best air-to-air combat aircraft the US produced until the prototype YF-16. 
fighters, and then highlights how the pilot can take advantage of their infrastructure advantage with rapid decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
he explains with the O-O-D-A Loop

Boyd encouraged Chuck Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
to expose the systemic cost overruns of the military procurement process.  The military hierarchy moved to undermine the Spinney Report and understand the nature of the reformers.  Boyd acted as a progressive mentor to Michael Wyly, who taught the Marine Corps about maneuver warfare, and Jim Burton

Finally, after the military hierarchy appears to have beaten him, Boyd's ideas are tested during the First Gulf War

Following our summary of his main points, RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio frames the details from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS)
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
theory
.  Boyd was
Desmond & Moore paint a picture of Charles Darwin's life, expanded from his own highlights:
  • His naughty childhood, 
  • Wasted schooldays,
  • Apprenticeship with Grant,
  • His extramural activities at Cambridge, walks with Henslow, life with FitzRoy on the Beagle,
  • His growing love for science,
  • London: geology, journal and Lyell. 
  • Moving from Gower Street to Down and writing Origin and other books. 
  • He reviewed his position on religion: the long dispute with Emma, his slow collapse of belief - damnation for unbelievers like his father and brother, inward conviction being evolved and unreliable, regretting he had ignored his father's advice; while describing Emma's side of the argument.  He felt happy with his decision to dedicate his life to science.  He closed by asserting after Self & Cross-fertilization his strength will be exhausted.  
Following our summary of their main points, RSS frames the details from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  Darwin placed evolution within a CAS framework, and built a network of supporters whose complementary skills helped drive the innovation. 
 
Darwinesque
, placing the art of air-to-air combat within a CAS framework. 
 
Boyd
In Robert Coram's biography 'Boyd,' we see how John Boyd:

13 Haunted beginnings
John Boyd was born on Jan 23 1927 at 514 Lincoln Avenue, Erie, Pennsylvania, the fourth child of Hubert, a travelling salesman for Hammermill and Elsie Boyd whose mother and Uncle had been troubled by mental problems.  He had two brothers: Bill who was ten and later developed and died of complications of schizophrenia is a chronic, psychotic, brain disorder impacting thinking and decision making that affects 1.1 percent of the adult U.S. population.  It is characterized by hallucinations, delusions: paranoid, feel they are being sent special messages, feel have special powers; disorganized and unusual thinking, social withdrawal, lack of motivation and cognitive decline: executive functions & working memory; that begins with the first episode and continues throughout life.  Children who eventually struggle with schizophrenia have normal working memory at age seven but are found with impairments by age 13.  MRIs show that people with schizophrenia have lateral ventricles that are enlarged, a thinner cerebral cortex and smaller hippocampus.  The default mode network is disrupted.  It seems to be caused by over pruning of prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons (Jan 2016), hippocampal pyramidal cells and sometimes thalamus neuron dendrites.  A dopaminergic network is impacted: mesolimbic; suggesting too much dopamine signalling.  Columbia University psychiatrist Franz Kallman found that a person with schizophrenia is much more likely, than non sufferers, to have a parent or sibling with the disorder.  And identical twins are even more likely to share the disorder.  Swedish researchers studying thousands of families in 2009 showed a strong hereditary link between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which was corroborated in 2012.  Many of the genes associated with schizophrenia act on the developing fetal brain.  MHC C4 gene supports immunity and synaptic pruning where it tags the synapses to be pruned.  Variant C4-A is associated with schizophrenia where too many synapses are tagged.  DISC1 translocation mutations have greatly increased the risk of schizophrenia.  DISC1 supports the migration of neurons during development.  There is evidence that some cases occur because of particular CNVs in the DNA of the sufferers: ZNF804A.  Autism and schizophrenia risk increases with one particular chromosome 7 CNV.  And de Novo mutations increase the risk.  Treatments include: psychotherapy, chlorpromazine which blocks dopamine receptors of the mesolimbic pathway removing 'positive' characteristics of schizophrenia but it also impacts the nigrostriatal pathway target receptors inducing Parkinson's disease like symptoms;
, and Hubert who was four; and a sister Marion who struggled with anxiety is manifested in the amygdala mediating inhibition of dopamine rewards.  Anxiety disorders are now seen as a related cluster, including PTSD, panic attacks, and phobias.  Major anxiety, is typically episodic, correlated with increased activity in the amygdala, results in elevated glucocorticoids and reduces hippocampal dendrite & spine density.  Some estrogen receptor variants are associated with anxiety in women.  Women are four times more likely to suffer from anxiety.  Louann Brizendine concludes this helps prepare mothers, so they are ready to protect their children.  Michael Pollan concludes anxiety is fear of the future.  Sufferers of mild autism often develop anxiety disorders.  Treatments for anxiety differ.  50 to 70% of people with generalized anxiety respond to drugs increasing serotonin concentrations, where there is relief from symptoms: worry, guilt; linked to depression, which are treated with SSRIs (Prozac).  Cognitive anxiety (extreme for worries and anxious thoughts) is also helped by yoga.  But many fear-related disorders respond better to psychotherapy: psychoanalysis, and intensive CBT.  Tara Brach notes that genuine freedom from fear is enabled by taking refuge. 
.  Another daughter, Ann, followed John, born September 23 1928. 

The family was challenged by a series of calamities includes different types of stressor: No mother, Unsupportive mother, paternal deprivation, Childhood poverty, [Observing ]violence, Natural disasters, Bullying; which impact development and produce adult problems. 
  • The adversities are stressful and alter stress physiology producing children and adults with elevated: Glucocorticoids, CRH and ACTH, Sympathetic nervous system activity.  Early stress permanently impacts the brains ability to control glucocorticoid secretion.  The more stressors experienced and the less protective factors, the less likely it is that the child will cope and become a resilient adult.  The stressors expand the size and activity of the amygdala helping it ignore prefrontal cortex constraints.  And they degrade the dopamine network through impacts to the development of the mesolimbic system and elevated adult glucocorticoids depleting dopamine. 
  • The problems include attachment issues and adults with: depression (dopamine depletion and lowered thresholds making adult stressors more influential), anxiety, substance abuse (dopamine depletion, excessive adult exposure to glucocorticoids increasing drug craving & poorly developed frontal cortex), impaired cognitive abilities especially frontocortical with impaired hippocampal-dependent learning, impaired impulse control (amygdala), impaired emotional control, antisocial behavior and violence, relationships that replicate the childhood adversities.  Abused children who develop PTSD show decreased hippocampal volume.  Glucocorticoids decrease hippocampal production of BDNF.  Childhood poverty impacts development of the corpus callosum & ensures by kindergarten, poor marshmallow test performance.  Childhood poverty increases impacts from environmental stressors: Toxins, Liquor stores instead of fresh food markets, No transport infrastructure, Limited jobs in the immediate vicinity, Little access to low cost capital, Low positions in all social hierarchies.  
:
With a lot to cope with while Ann was in hospital, Elsie left John to himself.  Being much younger than the others, John was able to spend time alone.  He could get lost in thought.  Even before his father died, he had been away a lot travelling to meet customers.  When he visited friends who had magazines about aircraft he would read the articles intently and have to be shouted at to get his attention is the mutli-faceted capability allowing access to consciousness.  It includes selective attention, vigilance, allocating attention, goal focus, and meta-awareness. 
.  John's mother paid off the mortgage, keeping the family located in a middle class area of Erie. 

Elsie encouraged the family to keep their troubles hidden warning them that people looked for weak points and took advantage of them.  Elsie struggled financially, selling cakes, and doing other jobs from the house so she could look after the children.  She allowed them a lot of freedom at home and was supportive.  On hot days the family would go to the peninsula and John quickly became a proficient and stylish swimmer.  John placed second in the state in 220-yard freestyle and captained the water polo team.  But no one was there to cheer his victories.  He became a lifeguard

With no spare
Carl Menger argues that the market induced the emergence of money based on the attractive features of precious metals.  He compares the potential for government edicts to create money but sees them as lacking. 

Following our summary of his arguments RSS frames his arguments from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  With two hundred years of additional knowledge we conclude that precious metals are not as attractive as Menger asserts.  Government backed promissory notes are analogous to:
  • Other evolved CAS forms of ubiquitous high energy transaction intermediates and
  • Schematic strategies that are proving optimal in supporting survival and replication in the currently accessible niches. 

money
, clothes were conserved and John wore Bill's old clothes after Hubert.  At school John was called out by a teacher for his attire.  Distressed he told his mother of the embarrassment.  Elsie told him he must not let it bother him.  She warned the family they would be attacked for being poor or weak, but she made poverty a virtue: linked to principles and integrity; and told them to defend their sense of what is right

John enlisted in the Army Air Corps, to ensure he wasn't drafted into the army, while still a junior at school, and on April 6th 1945 he reported for duty. 

30 The Big Jock and the Presbyterian
During basic training, John applied for the aviation cadet program that helped enlisted men to train as pilots, but was rejected because of "low aptitude."  He went on from basic training to be trained as an aircraft turret mechanic.  After staging in Arizona he was sent to Japan, as part of the occupation force.  To meet service requirements he became a swimming instructor and participated in swim meets around Japan.  He was discharged on January 7, 1947. 

When Boyd got back to Erie, he sought out Frank Pettinato, now chief lifeguard at the Peninsula.  Coram argues Pettinato advised Boyd to leverage the GI Bill is the Serviceman's Readjustment Act of 1944 (G.I. Bill) which provided benefits to soldiers returning from the Second World War: tuition payments and living expenses, low-cost mortgages, low-interest loans to start businesses and one year of unemployment compensation; acting as a major catalyst in generating human capital. 
to attend college.  Boyd continued swimming, won a 50-yard event and was runner-up in the 100-yard senior freestyle competing against the University of Michigan swimming team.  During the summer Boyd was assistant chief lifeguard at the Peninsula, patrolling the beach with Pettinato. 

Boyd attended the University of Iowa to study economics is the study of trade between humans.  Traditional Economics is based on an equilibrium model of the economic system.  Traditional Economics includes: microeconomics, and macroeconomics.  Marx developed an alternative static approach.  Limitations of the equilibrium model have resulted in the development of: Keynes's dynamic General Theory of Employment Interest & Money, and Complexity Economics.  Since trading depends on human behavior, economics has developed behavioral models including: behavioral economics. 
.  He went there because of swimming coach, David Armbruster.  But the coach picked other worthy swimmers.  Boyd was bitter about his Iowa experience.  But he was able to read lots of philosophy, history and war.  And he did meet Mary Ethelyn Bruce, a devout Presbyterian, who went to Iowa to marry a 'Big Jock' and decided she wanted to marry Boyd.  That would allow her to escape her domineering mother and she hoped, settle down in a small Iowa town. 

Boyd signed up for the Air Force Reserve Officers' Training Corps in his junior year, which helped with his finances.  But he enjoyed it: barking orders, taking charge of every gathering.  By now his goal was to join the Air Force and fly F-86 Sabre was a Korean War US fighter aircraft, with swept wings and a bubble canopy which directly descended from the German jet designs captured by the US and Soviet Union at the end of the Second World War.  Robert Coram asserts it was the best air-to-air combat aircraft the US produced until the prototype YF-16. 
jets.  With the start of the Korean war Boyd was retested for aptitude to be a pilot.  This time he passed.  Boyd graduated in June 1951 and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the Air Force.  He was ordered to Albuquerque, New Mexico, to await flight training. 

39 Fledgling
Coram writes that second lieutenant fighter pilots all have huge egos.  After a month at Albuquerque, Boyd was sent to Columbus AFB is Air Force Base. 
, Mississippi, for six months flight training in class 52-F.  Boyd was known for his: flying and leadership abilities, prodigious eating, focus on aviation tactics, frustration with the slow pace of the training, belief he would be the best fighter pilot in the Air Force.  52-F trained in the T-6 is a tandem-seat, single engine US training aircraft, which cruised at 135 mph.  The "Terrible Texan" had narrow landing gear that encouraged new pilots to "ground loop" on landing, which could fold or shear off the landing gear.  .  Boyd asserted his ideas to the other trainees and argued with the instructors about the slow pace of instruction.  Once Boyd soloed he threw the T-6 around like he had been flying it for years.  Coram notes he was unusual: showing no awe of the plane, pushing it intuitively to its true limits, and hauling the T-6 around aggressively; attributes which are useful in a fighter pilot, who survives by erratic shifts in flight path to limit being shot in the back by the enemy.  In the last 6 months of flight training Boyd was selected for training on the F-86 Sabre was a Korean War US fighter aircraft, with swept wings and a bubble canopy which directly descended from the German jet designs captured by the US and Soviet Union at the end of the Second World War.  Robert Coram asserts it was the best air-to-air combat aircraft the US produced until the prototype YF-16. 
.  During the Korean war the Air Force needed fighter pilots, but Boyd insists they allocated him to bombers - for being tall - and he had to threaten to resign to be sent to Williams AFB to fly fighters. 

Boyd trained on the F-80 Shooting Star was a single-engine, straight-winged US jet aircraft which was slow and underpowered.  Initially it did not have an ejection seat.  Its early generation engine could easily stop (flameout), especially if aggressively throttled, which resulted in many deaths during pilot training. 
at Williams.  Instead of the cross-country trips Boyd was assigned, he would fly down to Luke to join in combat practice, bouncing his friends training there.  Boyd later recalled his approach to winning in these early dog-fights was "to bend the shit out of that airplane" to "hose" the opponent. 

From Williams, pilots specializing in flying F-84 fighter bombers were sent to Luke AFB is Air Force Base. 
, while those training for air-to-air combat, viewed as having "the spirit of attack borne of a brave heart" including Boyd, went to Nellis AFB is near Las Vegas, Nevada, in a vast desert, is the home of the US Air Force fighter pilots.  Year-round good weather in Southern Nevada made Nellis perfect for dogfighting.  Robert Coram notes John Boyd trained there to prepare for air-to-air combat in Korea. 
AFB to train on the F-86.  The approach to training at Nellis was trial by fire since once in Korea, the new pilots would be at the mercy of the soviet MiG-15 pilots and without combat skills would be shot down.  Boyd began defeating his instructors, who were Korean combat veterans.  Once he reached 80 hours of applied tactics Boyd was considered ready for Korea. 

Boyd spent the weekends visiting Mary and they got engaged for three months and then married.  During the time Boyd trained at Nellis Mary was pregnant with Stephen.  He was born February 14, 1953 and John and Mary spent time at Ottumwa before Boyd left for combat. 

49 K-13 and MiG Alley
Boyd arrived late for the Korean War.  He was based at "K-13" Suwon as part of the 25th Squadron of the 51st Fighter-Interceptor group, tasked with maintaining air supremacy, and Boyd was initially a wingman for the element leader of a flight, covering his six-o'clock position to protect him from attack.  After 30 missions a wingman would be promoted to element leader and would shoot. 

Initially Boyd, like all the new 'smokes' was put through orientation:
By June the ace Russian pilots had returned home, Boyd had achieved his 30 missions, and F-86s shot down seventy-seven MiGs without loss.  Over all the F-86 had a 10 to 1 kill rate against the MiG-15.  But Boyd was not made element leader before hostilities ended.  Boyd would still patrol MiG alley and on the return flight would engage in simulated dogfighting.  Boyd was so good he was made assistant operations officer.  He still loved to talk tactics over lunch, prodding the listener aggressively with a finger as he talked.  His ideas about tactics resulted in him being made flight commander and tactics instructor.  He diagrammed out his ideas.  He lectured on tactics.  And those who disagreed with his ideas were instantly and forever dismissed from his life. 

Coram notes that this 10 to 1 kill rate superiority of the F-86 over the MiG-15 was puzzling.  The MiG: could make faster turns, it could out-accelerate the F-86, and was better at high-altitude.  The Air Force put it down to superior training.  Boyd eventually found the real reason.  The Air Force was seven years old and becoming a: bureaucracy, technocracy; focused on hardware that could achieve its goals of Bigger-Faster-Higher-Farther. 

While Boyd was in Korea, Mary took Stephen, on the 10 hour train journey to see John's mother.  Mary thought a long stay would please Elsie.  But Elsie was angry: with John for enjoying the war, with Mary for overstaying her welcome, and after Mary sailed on Lake Erie with John's friend Jack Arbuckle, Elsie labeled Mary irresponsible. 

58 High priest
Coram explains how the Air Force was formed as a separate branch of the military to support Eisenhower's Doctrine of "massive retaliation," by applying strategic bombing.  Bombers were able to deliver the nuclear bombs required by the strategy.  The Air Force was led by Curtis LeMay and his strategy was operationalized by SAC is US Strategic Air Command - bombing and ground support. 
, with a general staff of former bomber pilots building and deploying B47s and B52s.  Bomber pilots were promoted faster.

In Korea, the Air Force sustained air-to-air supremacy, but LeMay's power hierarchy saw this as an aberration.  The Air Force viewed fighter command's role as: delivering tactical nuclear bombs, intercepting enemy bombers; and judged missiles more useful to this mission than guns.  As a dogfighting tactician are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
it made sense that Boyd's next post was to Nellis AFB is near Las Vegas, Nevada, in a vast desert, is the home of the US Air Force fighter pilots.  Year-round good weather in Southern Nevada made Nellis perfect for dogfighting.  Robert Coram notes John Boyd trained there to prepare for air-to-air combat in Korea. 
AFB is Air Force Base. 
, the strong hold of fighter pilots: optimists pushing their planes even though mistakes would be fatal, 'tigers' with high rates of: court-martial, STD is sexually transmitted disease.  These include: Chlamydia, gonorrhea, HIV, Syphilis, Non-specific urethritis.  There is significant focus on and benefit in PoCT for effectively diagnosing and responding to STDs. 
s, lethal crashes and alcoholism; and assassins; where clear skies enabled dogfights.  Coram highlights these weren't test pilots: engineers, who followed rules and validated the performance envelope of aircraft; they were based at Edwards AFB. 

Boyd went through all the training to become an instructor of instructors in flying fighters.  He was developing transformational new tactics, based on maneuvers is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
, such as the snap roll, which dramatically decelerated the plane, and aggressively promoting them.  On completion of the FWS is the US Air Force's Fighter Weapons School, where excellent fighter pilots are trained to become instructors, so they can go back to their own bases and teach the other fighter pilots.  The best of the new instructors are monitored and can be called back to the FWS to become instructors of the trainee instructors.  Initially the Navy and Marines used the FWS but eventually, the Navy set up its own school which it called Top Gun.  FWS included three divisions: Operations and training, Research & Development, and Academics. 
he was invited to stay on as an instructor, wearing the distinctive badge, and flying a plane marked with the checkerboard snout and vertical stabilizer flash.  But Coram notes Boyd's success as a pilot, ability as a lecturer, and creativity and expertise as a tactician was not reflected in his reviews, which highlighted his disagreeable nature, and lack of alignment with his commanders, while belittling his achievement's. 

Mary was not interested in John's war fighting dreams, she was pregnant and focused on Stephen.  Calamity struck, Stephen became badly infected with polio is a paralysis caused in a small percentage of cases of infection with poliovirus.  It is transmitted by the fecal-oral route and less commonly from droplets from a sneeze or cough.  Epidemics of paralysis may be related to lack of immunity due to reduced infection rates in babies. 
, leaving him unable to walk.  John and Mary were forced to accept charity from March of Dimes to help with costly but ineffective treatment, including going to the Georgia hot springs.  A year later in 1954, too late for Stephen, Dr. Jonas Salk produced a vaccine are a core strategy of public health and have significantly extended global wellbeing over 200 years.  Smallpox & polio were virtually eradicated.  Recent successes include: HPV vaccine: Gardasil.  They induce active acquired immunity to a particular disease.  But the development and deployment of vaccines is complex:
  • The business model for vaccine development has been failing (Aug 2015): 
    • No Zika vaccine was available as the epidemic grew (Mar 2016).  No vaccine for: CMV;
    • Major foundations: Michael J. Fox, Gates, Wellcome; are working to improve the situation including sponsorship of the GAVI alliance.  A geographic cluster is forming in Seattle including PATH (Apr 2016). 
    • Commercial developers include: Affiris, Cell Genesis, Chiron, CSL, Sanofi, Valeant;
  • Vaccine deployment traditionally benefited from centrally managed vertical health programs.  But political issues are now constraining success with less than 95-99% coverage required for herd immunity (Aug 2015, Sep 2015, Nov 2015, Nov 2016, Jul 2018).  
    • Where clinics have been driven into local neighborhoods health improves (Apr 2016).  
    • Retail clinics (Mar 2016): CVS Minute Clinics focus on vaccination. 
    • NNT is a useful metric for vaccine benefit.  Influenza vaccine has an NNT of between 37 and 77, is cheap and causes little harm, so it is very beneficial. 
  • Key vaccines include: BCG, C. difficile (May 2015), Cholera (El Tor), Cervical Cancer (Gardasil HPV Jun 2018, Oct 2018), Dengvaxia (Mexico Dec 2015), Gvax, Influenza, Malaria vaccine, Provenge, Typbar-TCV (XDR typhoid Pakistan Apr 2018);
  • Regulation involves: FDA (CBER), with CMS monitoring (star ratings, PACE (Aug 2016), Report cards (Sep 2015)) & CDC promoting vaccines: as a sepsis measure, To control C. difficile (May 2015);  
    • Coding : CVX, MVX;
  • Research on vaccines includes: 
    • NIH: AIDS vaccines (AVRC), Focus on using genetic analysis to improve vaccine response.  
      • NCI:
        • Roswell Park clinical trial of immuno-oncology vaccine cimavax. 
    • Geisinger: effective process leverage in treatment. 
    • Stanford Edge immuno-oncology for cancer vaccines.  
    • P53-driven-cancer focused, gene therapy (Jun 2015). 
, soon after approved by the FDA Food and Drug Administration.  .  John was relieved of his guilt is an emotion which alerts us to the risk of cheating on a friend.  To be culturally effective the individuals must have respect for the law.  Guilt is associated with activation of the posterior cingulate cortex. 
, finding out that polio was not hereditary.  On February 8th, 1955 Mary gave birth to Kathryn. 

75 Pope John goes Severely Supersonic
Boyd published "A Proposed Plan for Ftr. Vs. Ftr. Training" in February 1956.  He argued: practice staying on the instructor's six, hard turns are fundamental to air combat, lead with the rudder as it slows the aircraft and tightens the turn, described tactical are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
maneuvers is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
used to gain an advantage and how to think about the effect of the tactics; pilots must maintain enough airspeed to keep maneuvering, advice that was taken up by young pilots who were keen to improve.  But others dismissed Boyd for not being an ace and he struck back criticizing the hierarchy's heroes, the Thunderbirds, for which he would pay later. 

At FWS is the US Air Force's Fighter Weapons School, where excellent fighter pilots are trained to become instructors, so they can go back to their own bases and teach the other fighter pilots.  The best of the new instructors are monitored and can be called back to the FWS to become instructors of the trainee instructors.  Initially the Navy and Marines used the FWS but eventually, the Navy set up its own school which it called Top Gun.  FWS included three divisions: Operations and training, Research & Development, and Academics. 
his superiors rewarded his ideas and skill at dogfighting in the F-100 Hun was a US Air Force fighter, manufactured by North American, which was designed to be a tactical fighter armed with guns, but was compromised by SAC extensions to its mission.  It was, explains Robert Coram, unforgiving of mistakes; one wrong control move, one moment of inattention, and the F-100 would "depart flight" usually by a sixty-degree pitch-up followed by a hard roll that turned into an out-of-control spin.  It was exceptional for air-to-air combat decelerating rapidly and would still fly at zero airspeed.  It had a serious design flaw: adverse yaw, where additional application of aileron caused the F-100 to roll violently in the opposite direction, because at low airspeeds and high angle of attack, the down aileron produced more drag than lift.  To avoid the problem pilots were taught to use the rudder as the primary control for both roll and turn rather than move the stick laterally at high angle of attack and low airspeed.  It also required skilled maintenance when the Air Force was laying-off some of its most skilled mechanics.  , - where he was never beaten - and lecturing.  It was Boyd who identified how to avoid the deadly yaw problem of the F-100 and leverage its low speed characteristics to get out of trouble in combat.  He was promoted to captain, sent to Squadron Officer School, and then asked by Spradling to run the Academics division.  John spent four years sitting opposite Spradling: while he developed the science of air combat, learning calculus is a numerical analysis strategy, developed and highlighted by Newton and Leibniz, who both leveraged the ideas of de Fermat.  He used adequality: how the addition of an infinitesimal quantity e to each component of an algebraic "equality", allowed for miniscule terms to be generated algebraically, and dropped, the factor of e canceled out, allowing the maxima and minima to be closely approached. 
to describe it quantitatively, and built a close friendship; who Coram notes was the first person to get long middle of the night calls where John reorganized his thoughts. 

90 Rat-Racing
Nevada used states' rights to defend the powerful gambling industry.  Coram explains that this focus encouraged Las Vegas to integrate its black and white populations, because they wanted everyone to gamble.  But Coram notes Boyd ensured hotels that his team used treated all members equally prior to this change.  He viewed his team as 'Us.'  And he also balanced this play and work, to be fair to 'Uncle'[ Sam.]

Boyd disliked the idea of owning a house: wrong place if we move, and didn't like time required for maintenance.  This trapped the family in some rental apartment that they all hated and resented.  Boyd's focus was on flying F-100 Hun was a US Air Force fighter, manufactured by North American, which was designed to be a tactical fighter armed with guns, but was compromised by SAC extensions to its mission.  It was, explains Robert Coram, unforgiving of mistakes; one wrong control move, one moment of inattention, and the F-100 would "depart flight" usually by a sixty-degree pitch-up followed by a hard roll that turned into an out-of-control spin.  It was exceptional for air-to-air combat decelerating rapidly and would still fly at zero airspeed.  It had a serious design flaw: adverse yaw, where additional application of aileron caused the F-100 to roll violently in the opposite direction, because at low airspeeds and high angle of attack, the down aileron produced more drag than lift.  To avoid the problem pilots were taught to use the rudder as the primary control for both roll and turn rather than move the stick laterally at high angle of attack and low airspeed.  It also required skilled maintenance when the Air Force was laying-off some of its most skilled mechanics.  s to instruct FWS is the US Air Force's Fighter Weapons School, where excellent fighter pilots are trained to become instructors, so they can go back to their own bases and teach the other fighter pilots.  The best of the new instructors are monitored and can be called back to the FWS to become instructors of the trainee instructors.  Initially the Navy and Marines used the FWS but eventually, the Navy set up its own school which it called Top Gun.  FWS included three divisions: Operations and training, Research & Development, and Academics. 
trainees in new tactics are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
, that he had devised, for air combat and show each pilot that Boyd was the best.  He succeeded, and as these new instructors returned to their bases around the world, Boyd's reputation went with them. 
101 Forty Second Boyd and the tactics manual
After 5.5 years, Boyd decided he needed to get nearer to the hot spring in Georgia, Warm Springs, to help Stephen and should move on from Nellis AFB is near Las Vegas, Nevada, in a vast desert, is the home of the US Air Force fighter pilots.  Year-round good weather in Southern Nevada made Nellis perfect for dogfighting.  Robert Coram notes John Boyd trained there to prepare for air-to-air combat in Korea. 
and FWS is the US Air Force's Fighter Weapons School, where excellent fighter pilots are trained to become instructors, so they can go back to their own bases and teach the other fighter pilots.  The best of the new instructors are monitored and can be called back to the FWS to become instructors of the trainee instructors.  Initially the Navy and Marines used the FWS but eventually, the Navy set up its own school which it called Top Gun.  FWS included three divisions: Operations and training, Research & Development, and Academics. 
.  He initially planned to fly F-104 Starfighter had very short wings, a missile with a man in it s at Tyndall AFB is Air Force Base. 
in Florida, but even with exceptional recommendations, this route was blocked so Boyd decided to use the AFIT is the US Air Force Institute of Technology, a scholarship program to support personnel studying to obtain advanced degrees.  The Sputnik crisis identified a need to train engineers for a US response, which forced a broadening of the AFIT program to include undergraduate engineering degrees and a loosening of the constraints. 
to retrain in industrial engineering at Georgia tech

Boyd felt he should write a tactics manual to document his training course but was rebuffed by FWS commandant, Colonel Ralph Newman.  Boyd did the work in his own time, getting over his difficulty with writing by dictating the details.  Spradling and Boyd then edited the document and submitted it to Newman who classified it as secret and rejected it, preferring to leverage the work of his Training Research and Development section.  So Boyd sent both documents to Tactical Air Command headquarters to a powerful friend who overruled Newman.  Boyd's Aerial Attack Study fully documented, codified and illustrated the tactics of aerial combat.  Boyd was awarded the Legion of Merit.  Fighter pilots around the global network of bases obtained copies.  But Boyd's detractors argued the manual showed his blind focus on air-to-air combat and that he was missing the big picture

Coram highlights how Boyd stuck up for underdogs:

123 Thermo, Entropy, and the breakthrough
Boyd was about 34 when he started an undergraduate industrial engineering degree at Georgia Institute of Technology on September 14th 1960.  He initially struggled with the thermodynamics course and entropy in particular.  But another student, Charles Cooper, delighted to meet a fighter pilot, spends time relating the ideas to potential and kinetic energy transfers and inefficient loss of useable energy as a flow of heat.  Boyd suddenly sees the relation between the first and second requires that the Boltzmann entropy of a closed system increases. 
laws of thermodynamics and the tactical are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
situations in his manual

Boyd purchased the only house he ever owned, but then sold it for the cost of the mortgage. 

Upon graduation, Boyd was promoted to major and transferred to Elgin AFB

The election of President Kennedy had significant impacts on the US is the United States of America.   Air Force:

135 PsubS = [(T-D)W]V
Boyd chose to go to Eglin AFB is Air Force Base. 
because it was only six hours drive from the Georgia hot springs therapy for Stephen.  But being totally rural Eglin was hugely frustrating to the family.  And John became totally focused on leveraging his discovery of a relation between entropy and tactical air warfare.  So he and the family slowly drifted apart.  Mary and Stephen spent a lot of time on Florida's powder beaches.  Mary tried to reach out to John but he was not prepared to explore his weaknesses

Given nondescript jobs, Boyd responded aggressively, and focused his energy on improving his idea.  Each boss moved him quickly on, and Boyd's reputation shifted from being Forty Second Boyd to Mad Man Boyd.  He didn't help going to the civilian who ran the base computing system, a man with the equivalent rank to general, and told him he needed huge amounts of computing time for his personal project.  Worse, Eglin was viewed as a peripheral backwater that enabled testing of air-to-ground weapons.  Strategy and theory was silo'd at Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
AFB. 

Coram explains this disastrous situation began to turn around when Boyd met his first acolyte Tom Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, the Finagler, who was running the team developing bombing tables for the Air Force, as part of the Ballistics Division of the Air Force Armament Center at Eglin AFB is Air Force Base. 
.  Christie realized Boyd was proposing an extension of his bombing tables for aircraft, and Christie's math was good enough to see the idea made sense.  He was looking to do something worthwhile and also realized that Boyd needed resources and cover if they were to succeed, and Christie's skills could ensure that support.  Boyd was now supervising the graphics shop during the day, but in their evenings, Christie and Boyd would work on developing the ideas, equations, and programs to tabulate E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
to explore possibilities across an airplanes flight envelope.  And together they obtained agreement to get the raw data, on the US is the United States of America.   and Soviet aircraft, from Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
AFB is Air Force Base. 
to populate the tables.  Boyd went to see the engineers and after getting their agreement to provide the data flew on to Erie, visiting his mother, sister, father's grave and Frank Pettinato.  He showed Erie his skills at flying the T-33 is a straight wing under-powered training jet. 


154 The sugarplum fairy spreads the Gospel
Coram introduces Harry Hillaker and the F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
, then the pride of the Air Force.  Hillaker was General Dynamics's project engineer on the aircraft, leading five thousand developers, and coordinating with two hundred Air Force personnel.  But when he informally met 'the best fighter pilot in the US is the United States of America.   Air Force,' in the bar at Eglin AFB is Air Force Base. 
, he was admonished for calling an eighty-five-thousand pound airplane a fighter!  Boyd had run provisional E-M is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
charts on the F-111 and asserted that its wing was too small to provide maneuverability is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
, the swing-wing joint was a liability, the pilot's visibility was unacceptable, and the engine was underpowered for such a heavy airplane.  Hillaker, was hearing similar concerns from top designers at General Dynamics.  So he listened carefully as Boyd told him about E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
and its predicted attributes of a great fighter.  Hillaker and Boyd discussed the characteristics of a maneuverable, lightweight fighter; which they would later work on together

As the data trickled in from Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
AFB is Air Force Base. 
, Boyd
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolved
the E-M tables
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
iteratively
, making small variations, comparing results and keeping improvements.  He stopped when no variation produced an improvement.  And he realized that the tables must rapidly highlight good from bad.  He made the tables comparisons of different aircraft: US versus Russian, good US is the United States of America.   aspects were blue and poor red; so the generals could easily get the picture. 

Boyd found errors in the Wright-Patterson data, and confronted them about it.  He made an enemy of the colonel who ran the meeting at the AFB, but with backing from his friend the general at Eglin, they were made to provide the accurate data. 

Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
and Boyd found E-M indicated the US airplanes performed poorly relative to the soviet craft at many points in their flight envelopes.  In disbelief, they reran the numbers and had an independent audit performed.  The data still implied problems with the US designs.  So they had US aircraft: F-100 Hun was a US Air Force fighter, manufactured by North American, which was designed to be a tactical fighter armed with guns, but was compromised by SAC extensions to its mission.  It was, explains Robert Coram, unforgiving of mistakes; one wrong control move, one moment of inattention, and the F-100 would "depart flight" usually by a sixty-degree pitch-up followed by a hard roll that turned into an out-of-control spin.  It was exceptional for air-to-air combat decelerating rapidly and would still fly at zero airspeed.  It had a serious design flaw: adverse yaw, where additional application of aileron caused the F-100 to roll violently in the opposite direction, because at low airspeeds and high angle of attack, the down aileron produced more drag than lift.  To avoid the problem pilots were taught to use the rudder as the primary control for both roll and turn rather than move the stick laterally at high angle of attack and low airspeed.  It also required skilled maintenance when the Air Force was laying-off some of its most skilled mechanics.  , F-105 Thud was a tactical nuclear aircraft
, F-4 Phantom was a US Navy Interceptor, manufactured by McDonnell-Douglas, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics to support carrier operation and storage.  Robert Coram explains it was no match for a MiG: big, heavy with twin-engines and no guns for use in air-to-air combat and its missiles: Sidewinder; were virtually useless in a tight turning fight. 
; perform flights with computers gathering data from flight sensors.  Top pilots: Tom McInerney, Douglas Peterson, Bobby Kan, Everett Raspberry was a US fighter pilot, FWS instructor, friend of John Boyd, and Vietnam ace.  Robert Coram explains that during 1967 Razz participated in Mission Bolo, where the Air Force fooled the Vietnamese into thinking they were attacking fully loaded F-105s, which they were shooting down in significant numbers, when they would actually be engaging combat ready F-4s.  It was still a risky mission because the F-4 had few aspects where it could win against a nimble MiG.  Razz had taught Boyd's tactics to the pilots of 555th Fighter Squadron so they all trained to roll to the outside once attacked.  As Boyd had predicted this would put the F-4 on the six of the MiG and Razz realized would be within the constrained G range where the missiles would work.  Razz's Wolf Pack shot down seven MiGs that day.  Razz subsequently shot down a MiG that was flying at 300 feet, from below, which put him in the record books. 
; flew the runs for them.  The details agreed with the Wright-Patterson data. 

Boyd used the validated E-M charts to brief pilots about their planes and the best way to fly them in combat: avoiding missiles, where they gained an advantage over the enemy pilot; word spread and more senior officers wanted to hear the details.  Christie admired Boyd's briefing ability but warned him to stand still - he moved around like the sugarplum fairy!  Christie wanted a report, which eventually he wrote.  Boyd asked him to accurately include attributions to theory that was used to develop E-M.  Generals were looking favorably on the E-M theory and Boyd was allowed to work on it full time.  He travelled about briefing Air Force pilots and manufacturers.  The Flight Dynamics Lab worked hard to disprove the theory and undermine Boyd, but they would have to wait a while. 

169 Pull the wings off and paint it yellow
By the middle of 1964 Boyd had the data to show the superiority of Soviet aircraft.  He shared it with fighter pilots from TAC is tactical air command.   headquarters.  The rumors became known to General Sweeney, who sent word, Boyd was to brief him.  First Boyd briefed his own line general, who was horrified at the conclusions, and threatened by the implications of failing to procure first class aircraft.  But Wright-Patterson admitted the foundation data was valid. 

Boyd, with Everett Raspberry was a US fighter pilot, FWS instructor, friend of John Boyd, and Vietnam ace.  Robert Coram explains that during 1967 Razz participated in Mission Bolo, where the Air Force fooled the Vietnamese into thinking they were attacking fully loaded F-105s, which they were shooting down in significant numbers, when they would actually be engaging combat ready F-4s.  It was still a risky mission because the F-4 had few aspects where it could win against a nimble MiG.  Razz had taught Boyd's tactics to the pilots of 555th Fighter Squadron so they all trained to roll to the outside once attacked.  As Boyd had predicted this would put the F-4 on the six of the MiG and Razz realized would be within the constrained G range where the missiles would work.  Razz's Wolf Pack shot down seven MiGs that day.  Razz subsequently shot down a MiG that was flying at 300 feet, from below, which put him in the record books. 
assisting him, presented the brief, Sweeney extending the time allocated from 20 minutes to two days as he became acquainted with the ideas.  His staff tested Boyd, but found no weakness in the details.  Boyd kept the F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
till last: an all red table; the implications horrifying Sweeney.  Boyd was told to keep the details about the F-111 confidential.  As the US planes, Boyd had analyzed, got shot down by MiGs, the Air Force leadership became more concerned.  The F-111 was rejected by the Navy, and US allies.  And the Air Force's next fighter (F-X) extended the F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
: Bigger, Higher, Faster, Further; logic. 

Senior leaders asked Boyd to attend meetings about F-X, but the decisions were controlled by Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
designers, who hated him for E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
which threatened their careers.  Boyd briefed the top science boards in the US is the United States of America.   including the President's advisors.  Boyd & Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
were showered with accolades, but Boyd's immediate superiors and other more powerful detractors ensured that Boyd did not obtain a promotion.  Boyd understood the implication: he got very drunk, he realized he could focus on doing good work but it would impede his becoming successful; he chose to do good. 

Boyd requested his next assignment be flying F-4 Phantom was a US Navy Interceptor, manufactured by McDonnell-Douglas, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics to support carrier operation and storage.  Robert Coram explains it was no match for a MiG: big, heavy with twin-engines and no guns for use in air-to-air combat and its missiles: Sidewinder; were virtually useless in a tight turning fight. 
s in Vietnam.  Coram explains that F-105 Thud was a tactical nuclear aircraft
s were being disproportionately shot down by MiGs and so F-4s were flying cover.  Boyd intended to become an ace.  He took the family on a holiday to Erie, intending to stay with his mother, but she made them stay in a motel.  Boyd was shocked by her rejection.  As Boyd prepared to transfer he was redirected to the Pentagon: the F-X budget was in trouble, the Air Force didn't want to take another Navy plane; Boyd was ordered to help. 

188 "I've never designed a fighter before."
Boyd's transfer to the Pentagon, from Eglin AFB is Air Force Base. 
, was initiated by the Air Force chief of staff John McConnell, who realized: E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
's adoption would expand Boyd's influence, that he needed this maverick to save the F-X from being cancelled and prevent the Navy from outmaneuvering the Air Force again.  And Vietnam highlighted the failure the Air Force's prior design strategies: F-4 Phantom was a US Navy Interceptor, manufactured by McDonnell-Douglas, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics to support carrier operation and storage.  Robert Coram explains it was no match for a MiG: big, heavy with twin-engines and no guns for use in air-to-air combat and its missiles: Sidewinder; were virtually useless in a tight turning fight. 
s and F-105 Thud was a tactical nuclear aircraft
s were poorly adapted to the conflict, planes needed to be maneuverable not their missiles.  But the transfer
This page discusses the benefits of bringing agents and resources to the dynamically best connected region of a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
centralized
Boyd in the Air Force power hierarchy, where career advancement is used to drive decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
top down. 

Coram explains the F-X was in deep trouble:
Boyd, still just a major, leveraged the F-X's problems and his maneuverability is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
goals is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
to push it towards being his conception of a deadly light weight fighter.  The Air Force hierarchy inadvertently, helped by asking him to review the work of Pierre Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
to help them destroy him.  When Boyd & Sprey met they found they were in agreement.  Boyd explained how he proposed to change F-X using E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
.  Sprey soon understood Boyd's theory as well as Boyd and Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
.  He explained how to adjust it so that it could be used as an aircraft design tool.  Boyd showed his briefings to Sprey who critically improved them.  Sprey admired Boyd's vision and became the second acolyte, meeting during many evenings to review E-M charts for a new F-X design. 

202 Bigger-Higher-Faster-Farther
Boyd intended to use the F-X redesign to prove the value of E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
and make the air force promote him to lieutenant colonel.  Having been diverted from Vietnam Boyd lived vicariously through the successes of his former FWS is the US Air Force's Fighter Weapons School, where excellent fighter pilots are trained to become instructors, so they can go back to their own bases and teach the other fighter pilots.  The best of the new instructors are monitored and can be called back to the FWS to become instructors of the trainee instructors.  Initially the Navy and Marines used the FWS but eventually, the Navy set up its own school which it called Top Gun.  FWS included three divisions: Operations and training, Research & Development, and Academics. 
students: Everett Raspberry was a US fighter pilot, FWS instructor, friend of John Boyd, and Vietnam ace.  Robert Coram explains that during 1967 Razz participated in Mission Bolo, where the Air Force fooled the Vietnamese into thinking they were attacking fully loaded F-105s, which they were shooting down in significant numbers, when they would actually be engaging combat ready F-4s.  It was still a risky mission because the F-4 had few aspects where it could win against a nimble MiG.  Razz had taught Boyd's tactics to the pilots of 555th Fighter Squadron so they all trained to roll to the outside once attacked.  As Boyd had predicted this would put the F-4 on the six of the MiG and Razz realized would be within the constrained G range where the missiles would work.  Razz's Wolf Pack shot down seven MiGs that day.  Razz subsequently shot down a MiG that was flying at 300 feet, from below, which put him in the record books. 
, Ronald Catton was a US fighter pilot, FWS instructor, friend of John Boyd who mentored him through a DWI to gain top marks in every aspect of his FWS exams, and Vietnam ace.  Robert Coram explains that Catton arrived as a flight leader in the 433rd Tactical Fighter Squadron.  He flew many missions and pushed for risk taking and results.  Leading a flight of four F-4s on a bombing mission that was diverted to a training area for enemy troops, Catton setup the F-4s in a wagon wheel over the heavily defended target.  The flight flew low and took ground fire and flak.  The base was destroyed earning Major Catton a Silver Star.  On his 94th mission, providing air cover for Thuds, Catton ignored the feint MiG attacks and then deployed the F-4s against the main MiG thrust.  All targets were bombed.  All the F-105s returned to home base.  But Catton decided to celebrate with formation victory rolls and two F-4s were lost.  Catton lost a second Silver Star, and instead of being transferred to Nellis AFB as an instructor as had been planned, he was sent to the Pentagon on probation.  Boyd was confident he would pull through which he did.  He became a full colonel and a wing commander, and was being fast tracked for general with a transfer to the War College.  But his wife was diagnosed with cancer so he retired early to take care of her.  After the Air Force, Catton became a multimillionaire financial consultant in Spokane, Washington. 
; becoming aces using his tactics even with inferior airplanes.  But his focus was on turning the Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
design hierarchy and aligned
The complex adaptive system (CAS) nature of a value delivery system is first introduced.  It's a network of agents acting as relays. 

The critical nature of hub agents and the difficulty of altering an aligned network is reviewed. 

The nature of and exceptional opportunities created by platforms are discussed. 

Finally an example of aligning a VDS is presented. 
VDS
of defense contractors away from Bigger-Higher-Faster-Farther to making aircraft that were fit-for-purpose. 

While Boyd pushed to vastly reduce the weight of the F-X, every other design participant had some incentive to add more.  For Wright-Patterson it was to undermine E-M theory and Boyd, so they gave him misleading data.  But Boyd would apply the new details to Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
's computer models, and when he saw the results would know the data must be wrong.  He flew to Wright-Patterson AFB is Air Force Base. 
and confronted the hierarchy in a meeting, calling them liars.  They demanded his resignation, but since they had setup the data to falsely indicate smaller wings created more maneuverability is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
, which any general knew was a lie, Boyd's line general pushed back and they were exposed and forced to provide real data. 

Long standing Air Force leadership views: missiles not guns; could not be argued against directly, although Boyd tried, but battle testing suggested guns were more effective. 

The transformation of F-X led to Boyd and Christie, briefing about the capabilities of the new design.  The F-X budget was saved.  And with the help of his line general Boyd was promoted to lieutenant colonel. 

221 Saving the F-15
Coram writes that Mary felt her husband changed after he went to the Pentagon.  He: became more: intense, insular, defensive; abandoned his pilot license; was angry is an emotion which protects a person who has been cheated by a supposed friend.  When the exploitation of the altruism is discovered, Steven Pinker explains, the result is a drive for moralistic aggression to hurt the cheater.  Anger is mostly experienced as a rapid wave that then quickly dissipates.  When it is repressed, for example by a strong moral sense (superego), it can sustain, inducing long term stress. 
about careerism and corruption.  Initially Boyd did not spend any time looking for a permanent place for the family to live.  Eventually Boyd chose an apartment because it was 10 minutes from the Pentagon.  It was terribly compromised and caused endless issues with Mary and their family

Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
and Boyd iterated over E-M is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
charts to develop a more effective lighter F-X.  The Air Force chief of staff, grateful for Boyd's apolitical feedback, helped him by requiring the F-X to have a maximum weight of forty thousand pounds.  But additional requirements just kept coming.  And with the Air Force still positive about the F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
it would not agree with Boyd to make F-X a fixed wing aircraft.  In desperation, Boyd & Sprey developed a recommendation for a far lighter variant "Red Bird" which they recommended to the Air Force leaders.  Sprey sent a paper to System Command's leader, General James Ferguson.  He agreed Red Bird was superior to the heavy, swing-wing proposal, but said all of his general staff preferred the other option. 

The Navy was now building the F-14 Tomcat is a US Navy Interceptor, a second generation swing wing aircraft, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics due to the infrastructure to support the wing.  Robert Coram explains it is a "lumbering, poor-performing, aerial truck.  It weighs about fifty-four thousand pounds.  Add on external fuel tanks and missiles and the weight is about seventy thousand pounds.  It is what fighter pilots call a 'grape': squeeze it in a couple of hard turns and all the energy oozes out.  That energy cannot be quickly regained, and the aircraft becomes an easy target." 
and was working with their aligned Congressmen to have F-X cancelled.  Boyd was asked to accompany an Air Force general attending the special House Armed Services Committee run by South Carolina's Mendel Rivers, who was
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
aligned
with the Navy.  Boyd realized the congressional questions were designed to show the F-X was another swing-wing F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
variant and lead to its cancellation.  So Boyd got the general to state the F-X was a fixed wing aircraft.  This strategy saved the budget from Congress and the plane from the Navy. 

The Air Force re-designated the fixed wing F-X: the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
, accepting all the budget and weight expanding, non-dogfighting features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar is radio detection and ranging.  It is a method of finding the position and velocity of a target by sending out a pulse of radio frequency electromagnetic waves and analyzing the reflections returned from the target. 
; which so disgusted is a universal human emotion.  Pinker notes it has its own facial expression and is codified in food taboos.  The mind must be associated with the proximate environment and parents minimize the risk for their omnivorous children by teaching them what foods to eat and what to avoid.  The children's minds are initially receptive to trying all foods but their brains subsequently lock in on the foods they have experienced.  These parental choices are affected by schematic influence on what has been beneficial.  Adolescent's brain developments undermine these constraints enabling intergroup transfers.  Disgust is modulated by the insula cortex which projects signals to the amygdala.  Adult humans merge moral and physical disgust enabling metaphorical out grouping. 
Boyd that he submitted papers requesting retirement the next year. 

232 Ride of the Valkyries
Coram reminds us of 1969 - Nixon's rise to the presidency and announcement of a troop withdrawal from Vietnam.  And he explains the same year, Pierre Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
began secretly
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the development of the A-X, which became the A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
.   The Air Force chief of staff was concerned that the Army's new Cheyenne helicopter development would be positioned with Congress to own the CAS is:
  • Close Air Support by the Air Force of ground troops.  CAS aircraft: US A-1, A-10 , Cheyenne helicopter, Stuka; target tanks, bridges etc. to limit the operations of the enemy ground forces and enable movement by friendly forces. 
  • Complex Adaptive System is an emergent, complex system which leverages evolution to iteratively plan and execute activites by agents. 
mission and budget.  He needed a cheaper alternative craft that would ensure the mission would remain with the Air Force.  But CAS was derided in the Air Force hierarchy, so Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
, who had already promoted the importance of CAS in his critique of Interdiction Bombing and was: feared in the Air Force, determined, smart and politically savvy; was asked to covertly help. 

Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
obtained the requirements by talking to Vietnam CAS is:
  • Close Air Support by the Air Force of ground troops.  CAS aircraft: US A-1, A-10 , Cheyenne helicopter, Stuka; target tanks, bridges etc. to limit the operations of the enemy ground forces and enable movement by friendly forces. 
  • Complex Adaptive System is an emergent, complex system which leverages evolution to iteratively plan and execute activites by agents. 
A-1 was a US Army aircraft used in Vietnam for CAS. 
pilots:
Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
responded to the requirements with a design outline of a cheap plane focused on CAS is:
  • Close Air Support by the Air Force of ground troops.  CAS aircraft: US A-1, A-10 , Cheyenne helicopter, Stuka; target tanks, bridges etc. to limit the operations of the enemy ground forces and enable movement by friendly forces. 
  • Complex Adaptive System is an emergent, complex system which leverages evolution to iteratively plan and execute activites by agents. 
:
Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
wanted the A-X to be single engine, but the Air Force insisted on two.  And they required it be much bigger than he desired.  The A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
was ridiculed by the Air Force until it was finally tested in use

In 1969, Defense Secretary Laird and Deputy Defense Secretary Packard were appointed by President Nixon.  And Boyd and Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
met Colonel Everest Riccioni was an emotional Italian, who flew P-38s and P-51s in World War II, got an undergraduate degree in aeronautical engineering and a master's degree in applied mathematics, went to MIT to do a PhD in astronautical engineering, and became an instructor at the Air Force Academy.  Robert Coram notes he wrote Tigers Airborne, which the Air Force asked John Boyd, as author of Aerial Attack Study, to critique.  Boyd argued pilots should be exposed to a broad set of ideas about tactics, and would not criticize Riccioni, although he disagreed with his conclusions.  Subsequently at the Pentagon, he held an R&D post where he could contract for research studies.  He accepted Boyd's arguments that the F-14 was a dog so the Navy would be looking to replace it and the F-15 would be overly expensive and so be threatened by Congress and the Navy, that the Air Force needed a high potential backup.  Riccioni developed a vision of a lightweight fighter built around the F-15 engine, which he enabled with letter to the R&D general warning of the Navy threat and asking for funding for a "Study to Validate the Integration of Advanced Energy-Maneuverability Theory with Trade-Off analysis."  Riccioni teamed with Boyd and Sprey in the Fighter Mafia to secretly develop a lightweight fighter, enabling the funding of design studies for the YF-16 and YF-17.  But he could not keep his activity secret and once it became aware the Air Force transferred Everest to Korea. 
.  All three helped Boyd and Sprey with creation of the F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 


243 The Fighter Mafia does the Lord's Work
Boyd's boss, Colonel Robert Titus celebrated how the E-M is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
work had made the acquisition of the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
possible.  Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
leveraged such feelings to encourage the Air Force chief to push for Boyd's promotion to Colonel.  Agreeing that Boyd had more potential to help the chief also moved him across DC to Andrews AFB is Air Force Base. 
, invalidating his retirement request, to
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program manage
the F-15.  Boyd and Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
were still disgusted is a universal human emotion.  Pinker notes it has its own facial expression and is codified in food taboos.  The mind must be associated with the proximate environment and parents minimize the risk for their omnivorous children by teaching them what foods to eat and what to avoid.  The children's minds are initially receptive to trying all foods but their brains subsequently lock in on the foods they have experienced.  These parental choices are affected by schematic influence on what has been beneficial.  Adolescent's brain developments undermine these constraints enabling intergroup transfers.  Disgust is modulated by the insula cortex which projects signals to the amygdala.  Adult humans merge moral and physical disgust enabling metaphorical out grouping. 
at the changes being forced on the increasingly bloated F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
and worked on designing their Red Bird.  Co-conspirator Riccioni was an emotional Italian, who flew P-38s and P-51s in World War II, got an undergraduate degree in aeronautical engineering and a master's degree in applied mathematics, went to MIT to do a PhD in astronautical engineering, and became an instructor at the Air Force Academy.  Robert Coram notes he wrote Tigers Airborne, which the Air Force asked John Boyd, as author of Aerial Attack Study, to critique.  Boyd argued pilots should be exposed to a broad set of ideas about tactics, and would not criticize Riccioni, although he disagreed with his conclusions.  Subsequently at the Pentagon, he held an R&D post where he could contract for research studies.  He accepted Boyd's arguments that the F-14 was a dog so the Navy would be looking to replace it and the F-15 would be overly expensive and so be threatened by Congress and the Navy, that the Air Force needed a high potential backup.  Riccioni developed a vision of a lightweight fighter built around the F-15 engine, which he enabled with letter to the R&D general warning of the Navy threat and asking for funding for a "Study to Validate the Integration of Advanced Energy-Maneuverability Theory with Trade-Off analysis."  Riccioni teamed with Boyd and Sprey in the Fighter Mafia to secretly develop a lightweight fighter, enabling the funding of design studies for the YF-16 and YF-17.  But he could not keep his activity secret and once it became aware the Air Force transferred Everest to Korea. 
obtained funding for a design study for two lightweight fighter planes. 

Boyd went back to his notes from Korea, and the 10 to 1 kill ratio of the F-86 Sabre was a Korean War US fighter aircraft, with swept wings and a bubble canopy which directly descended from the German jet designs captured by the US and Soviet Union at the end of the Second World War.  Robert Coram asserts it was the best air-to-air combat aircraft the US produced until the prototype YF-16. 
to MiG-15.  The E-M work is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
on the F-86 had been difficult to do, but on paper the MiG-15 was better.  He looked for some factors not covered by E-M theory.  He identified two.  The F-86 had:
  1. A bubble canopy allowing a 360 degree field of view - which the MiG did not.   
  2. Full hydraulic controls - unlike the MiG, meaning during combat the MiG pilot would become fatigued; so the F-86 was quicker in changing maneuvers is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
    1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
    2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
    , which are more important in dogfights. 
Coram explains the $149,000 study grant was split between Northrop and General Dynamics, who pitched in their own funds to leverage the work into a future Air Force contract.  Northrop used $100,000 to apply its designers to the YF-17.  General Dynamics took $49,000 to design the YF-16, aiming to redeem the debacle with the F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
Hillaker started meeting with Boyd, and Sprey, to resume building their vision.  Rumors of the future potential of the work attracted Lockheed, LTV and Boeing.  While Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
continued to help Boyd and consulted on the A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
, he left the DOD - U.S. Department of Defense. 
to work on the environment at a start-up. 

257 A short-legged bird
News media complained about the exceptional cost of the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
, and the terrible performance of the F-14 Tomcat is a US Navy Interceptor, a second generation swing wing aircraft, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics due to the infrastructure to support the wing.  Robert Coram explains it is a "lumbering, poor-performing, aerial truck.  It weighs about fifty-four thousand pounds.  Add on external fuel tanks and missiles and the weight is about seventy thousand pounds.  It is what fighter pilots call a 'grape': squeeze it in a couple of hard turns and all the energy oozes out.  That energy cannot be quickly regained, and the aircraft becomes an easy target." 
, and Senator William Proxmire agreed.  Nixon told Laird to fix this problem with military purchasing, and he assigned it to PackardPackard announced a budget of $200 million for prototypes, spread across the services.  The Air Force wanted a large share of the $200 million and asked Colonel Lyle Cameron to find winning prototypes.  Cameron was highly respected by systems analysis and was a close friend of Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
.  He selected a short takeoff and landing transport plane and the lightweight fighter

The Air Force generals viewed the lightweight fighter as a toy with hopelessly limited range: short-legged; and Boyd ensured they maintained that perception.  The design study had actually shown the lightweight fighter would have better performance and longer range.  He also worked to streamline the procurement process, using Sprey's was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
strategies from the A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
program, including a fly off by fighter pilots between the two prototypes; while blocking the use of computer simulations so popular with the Air Force.  With the 'train' moving forward, Boyd was ordered to Thailand on a year assignment

266 Spook Base
Boyd was transferred in April 1972 to Nakkom Phanom Royal Thai AFB is Air Force Base. 
, as Vice Commander of Task Force Alpha at Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai AFB, was a Vietnam era covert program sponsored by McNamara's technocrats, which aimed to use various types of sensors deployed along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, to monitor and model the operations of the North's resupply network into South Vietnam.  It cost $2.5 billion, deploying a huge IBM computer installation in a massive underground building.  But, while it commanded a large DOD budget, and was very profitable for IBM, it could not model the inputs fast enough to provide useful targeting details and was shut down on the recommendation of vice commander John Boyd explains Robert Coram. 
, inspector general - he presided over an F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
crash investigation - and equal opportunity training officer - where his pragmatic fairness reduced racial tensions; roles in which he excelled, eventually replacing the base commander who had become unhinged.  In truth, Boyd was sent to Thailand because the Air Force chief of staff needed to cancel Task Force Alpha and Boyd would do what was right ignoring the reaction of the powerful. 

Boyd also used E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
pragmatically, to compare the F-4 Phantom was a US Navy Interceptor, manufactured by McDonnell-Douglas, which compromised its tactical fighter characteristics to support carrier operation and storage.  Robert Coram explains it was no match for a MiG: big, heavy with twin-engines and no guns for use in air-to-air combat and its missiles: Sidewinder; were virtually useless in a tight turning fight. 
with enemy fighters in the theater, saving pilots lives with better engagement tactics are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 


And he started working on his
The page reviews how complex systems can be analyzed. 
The resulting analysis supports evaluation of system events. 
The analysis enables categorization of different events into classes. 
The analysis helps with recombination of the models to enable creativity. 
The page advocates an iterative approach including support from models. 

analysis
of creativity: Destruction and Creation was John Boyd's brief and paper on creativity and learning theory - where he explored the relationship between the observer and what is observed and how that relationship can creatively change as the mind dynamically constructs entities and relationships between them.  Boyd stresses we can catalyze the process if we then break and rearrange the relationships, a mental mechanism explained systematically by Hofstadter.  Boyd notes introspection of the creation identifies imperfections which he concludes can be inherent consequences of: Godel's theorem, uncertainty of atomic observations, entropy; to which CAS theory would add contributions: frozen accidents, uncomputable decisions, the autogenic ratchet, unknowable future of strategies seeking niches at the edge of chaos, and consciousness recreating it; at macroscale.  Robert Coram shows Boyd's own experiences linking this mental process and physical processes that can be aligned in new creations.  For the physical instantiations to be realized as innovations, constraints must be thrown off allowing the destruction of the old framework and progress towards the new.  In Boyd's situation the 'old' was important to the Air Force hierarchy who worked to maintain the extended phenotypical alignment, but the 'new' could be developed if powerful executives: chief of staff, congressional leader, defense secretary; were aware of the possibility and needed the change to occur, and Boyd was supported by a network of complementary personalities.  Boyd felt the goal of creation was to gain independence, but this is likely a reflection of his powerful gut 'challenger' personality type, and experience working within a power hierarchy.  Our genes demand survival long enough to reproduce. 
, aided by playing loud opera in his quarters at night. 

Family tragedy caused Boyd to fly back to the US is the United States of America.   twice while in Thailand: his sister Ann was hospitalized and later died from cancer is the out-of-control growth of cells, which have stopped obeying their cooperative schematic planning and signalling infrastructure.  It results from compounded: oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA caretaker; mutations in the DNA.  In 2010 one third of Americans are likely to die of cancer.  Cell division rates did not predict likelihood of cancer.  Viral infections are associated.  Radiation and carcinogen exposure are associated.  Lifestyle impacts the likelihood of cancer occurring: Drinking alcohol to excess, lack of exercise, Obesity, Smoking, More sun than your evolved melanin protection level; all significantly increase the risk of cancer occurring (Jul 2016). 


278 Take a look at the B-1
Boyd, now a passed over colonel, was keen to catalyze, an infrastructure amplifier. 
the prototyping, acquisition and operational instantiation of his light weight fighter, as he transferred from Thailand back to the Pentagon.  But he was assigned to run the Office of Development Plans.  It had no budget control.  But it did require Boyd to attend all the Air Force Program Review Committee meetings.  Boyd sent the office secretary in his place. 

James Schlesinger was Nixon's new secretary of defense.  Richard Hallock proposed his legacy as secretary could be forcing the Air Force to deploy the light weight fighter and the A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
.  The Air Force preferred the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
and the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
.  But the YF-16 and YF-17 fly off still had not occurred, so Boyd could have little influence.  Instead, his attention fell on the B-1. 

Boyd asked his line general for one good report and was assigned Captain Ray Leopold was born January 6th 1946.  He was keen to attend the Air Force Academy, and achieved the highest score in his math exams ever in northwest Chicago.  At the Academy he proved a near genius at electrical engineering, but was hopeless at Political Science, English and History.  The Air Force sent him to graduate school where he obtained a master's degree at 22.  He was second in his flight class at Williams AFB to solo a T-38, but herniated disk ended his flying career.  He paid his own way at night school to earn a Ph.D.  Leopold's father died a year before he was sent to the Pentagon.  There he was assigned to the Office of Development Plans, reporting to Colonel John Boyd.  He developed an analysis of the B-1 development program, concluding the costs were astronomical, and in breach of federal law.  Boyd coached him to be very conservative with the numbers used in the B-1 critique.  He was required to brief a series of generals and stood his ground, which impressed Boyd who subsequently treated him as an acolyte.  The four star generals convened a corona to decide on what to do with the B-1.  Chuck Spinney was briefing them because Leopold was on holiday.  The generals arranged to offer Leopold the accolade of a named transfer, aiming to get him away from Boyd and Spinney.  But Leopold refused it, choosing to do something rather than to be someone.  To save him from forced resignation, Boyd engineered a teaching job for Leopold at the Air Force Academy, where Boyd would later lecture to his students on the O-O-D-A Loop. 
, who he asked to review the Air Force budget, and in particular the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
program. Integrating details from the: defense authorization budget, defense appropriation budget, annual Air Force budget, Research and Development budget, and the Procurement budget; he concluded the B-1 was drawing off a disproportionate amount of money, explains Coram.   Boyd requested a parametric analysis of projected costs using values from the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
and lightweight fighter.  He warned Leopold to be conservative with cost estimates for the B-1.  Leopold wrote a classified memo asserting that if the Air Force purchased 240 B-1s as planned it would cost $68 billion a copy and was the costliest project in the Air Force. 

290 "This briefing is for information purposes only."
Coram explains that by 1973 Tom Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
had about 100 reports at Eglin AFB is Air Force Base. 
when he accepted a move to take over the Tactical are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
Air Program in the OSD is the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon.   at the Pentagon.  In reality Schlesinger had asked Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
to help protect the budget for the lightweight fighter he knew the Air Force hierarchy saw as a threat to the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
and were moving to kill after prototyping by removing it from the 1975 budget.  And Schlesinger encouraged the Air Force chief of staff to sustain the lightweight fighter and A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
program by agreeing in a deal to expand the number of wings under his command.  Each time the Air Force took the lightweight fighter out of the budget Christie would reallocate funds for it. 

Schlesinger had also been covertly introduced to Boyd by Hallock (at Sprey's was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
recommendation).  Boyd was briefing pilots on the exceptional tactical characteristics of the lightweight fighter.  The generals waited to be briefed when they would raise objections and kill the activity.  Knowing of the agreement between Schlesinger and the chief of staff, Boyd briefed the generals "for information purposes only," revealing that the fighter had been agreed to by the secretary of defense and the chief of staff. 

With the lightweight fighter budget allocated, the career oriented hierarchy moved to get Congress to cancel the program, having a two star general respond negatively to questioning from a friendly representative.  But Boyd warned Schlesinger who got the chief of staff to summarily fire the general.  Careerists took note.  Instead, the generals warned Congress that the lightweight fighter would be unattractive to allies as it was short-legged.  Now Boyd moved to reveal that the lightweight fighter would have the best operational range of any fighter in the US armory. 

In June of 1974 Boyd hired a new deputy, Lieutenant Colonel James Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
, completing his
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
network
of acolytes

In October 1974, a leak from Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
AFB is Air Force Base. 
indicated the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
would now cost $100 million per plane, even more than Leopold's $68 million estimateLeopold was born January 6th 1946.  He was keen to attend the Air Force Academy, and achieved the highest score in his math exams ever in northwest Chicago.  At the Academy he proved a near genius at electrical engineering, but was hopeless at Political Science, English and History.  The Air Force sent him to graduate school where he obtained a master's degree at 22.  He was second in his flight class at Williams AFB to solo a T-38, but herniated disk ended his flying career.  He paid his own way at night school to earn a Ph.D.  Leopold's father died a year before he was sent to the Pentagon.  There he was assigned to the Office of Development Plans, reporting to Colonel John Boyd.  He developed an analysis of the B-1 development program, concluding the costs were astronomical, and in breach of federal law.  Boyd coached him to be very conservative with the numbers used in the B-1 critique.  He was required to brief a series of generals and stood his ground, which impressed Boyd who subsequently treated him as an acolyte.  The four star generals convened a corona to decide on what to do with the B-1.  Chuck Spinney was briefing them because Leopold was on holiday.  The generals arranged to offer Leopold the accolade of a named transfer, aiming to get him away from Boyd and Spinney.  But Leopold refused it, choosing to do something rather than to be someone.  To save him from forced resignation, Boyd engineered a teaching job for Leopold at the Air Force Academy, where Boyd would later lecture to his students on the O-O-D-A Loop. 
had developed a graph of real cost of future purchases which showed an increasing delta between Congress's appropriations and the Air Force's commitments to Rockwell.  The US is the United States of America.   could not afford 200 B-1 bombers but the Air Force generals told Leopold, "Our job is to see that the money to the contractor is not interrupted."  The generals responded to the leak:

In early 1977, Jimmy Carter became president and early on killed the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
.  Coram argues that a Corona, in the Air Force, is a rare gathering of four-star generals responding to a very serious issue according to Robert Coram.  A three-star general briefs the gathering.  The decisions of the corona are secret. 
of four-star Air Force generals had accepted that the B-1 was vastly more expensive than its, $25 million a copy, legislated price. 

305 The Buttonhook Turn
In January 1975, the YF-16 won the lightweight fighter fly-off against the YF-17.  The differences between the two were huge leaving the YF-16, the unanimous choice of pilots who had flown both prototypes.  But Boyd's
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
models
had predicted they were similar.  The difference was the YF-16's ability to buttonhook turn - an asymmetric fast-transient was John Boyd's initial application of his Destruction and Creation process to develop a broader definition of Maneuverability.  Use of fast-transients can force an attacking aircraft off the firing position, and help a pursuing pilot obtain a firing position, if the pilot can operate at a faster tempo than his opponent, so quick it is disorienting and appears uncertain to the enemy who then over- or under-reacts.  Boyd based the brief on his analysis of the F-86 high hit rate against the MiG-15 which was a superior aircraft according to E-M theory.  But he also included an analysis of: von Manstein's Ardennes blitzkrieg strategy at the line of least expectations supported by Guderian & Rommel's shockingly rapid motorized thrusts across and beyond the Meuse, and Israel's raid on Entebbe Airport to rescue hostages. 
, a flick from one maneuver to the next faster than any other aircraft, because after dumping energy it could pump it back up.  The winning YF-16 was re-designated the F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 
.  And the Air Force deployed a phalanx to "missionize it" into a bomber that would not compete with the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
.  Soon the F-16 would be very different to the YF-16.  Boyd never forgave the Air Force.  And the Navy refused to buy the plane.  They took the YF-17 as a basis for development of the F-18 is a US Navy twin-engined fighter, based on the YF-17 Northrop prototype, but loaded with extra fuel, electronics and redesigned the air frame to make it a big, beefy airplane explains Robert Coram.  .  Like the Air Force they added features bloating the plane!

Boyd had turned his thoughts on creativity into a first instance of a paper Destruction and Creation was John Boyd's brief and paper on creativity and learning theory - where he explored the relationship between the observer and what is observed and how that relationship can creatively change as the mind dynamically constructs entities and relationships between them.  Boyd stresses we can catalyze the process if we then break and rearrange the relationships, a mental mechanism explained systematically by Hofstadter.  Boyd notes introspection of the creation identifies imperfections which he concludes can be inherent consequences of: Godel's theorem, uncertainty of atomic observations, entropy; to which CAS theory would add contributions: frozen accidents, uncomputable decisions, the autogenic ratchet, unknowable future of strategies seeking niches at the edge of chaos, and consciousness recreating it; at macroscale.  Robert Coram shows Boyd's own experiences linking this mental process and physical processes that can be aligned in new creations.  For the physical instantiations to be realized as innovations, constraints must be thrown off allowing the destruction of the old framework and progress towards the new.  In Boyd's situation the 'old' was important to the Air Force hierarchy who worked to maintain the extended phenotypical alignment, but the 'new' could be developed if powerful executives: chief of staff, congressional leader, defense secretary; were aware of the possibility and needed the change to occur, and Boyd was supported by a network of complementary personalities.  Boyd felt the goal of creation was to gain independence, but this is likely a reflection of his powerful gut 'challenger' personality type, and experience working within a power hierarchy.  Our genes demand survival long enough to reproduce. 
.  But he was distracted by problems occuring for Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
- marriage disintegrating and disgusted with the careerism he resigned his commission to work for a defense contractor - and Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
who discovered his Academy friends were using him and so, with Boyd's help, decided to fight back and do something. 

Boyd was asked to do a study of the swing-wing "Backfire Bomber" which the Navy was arguing was a huge threat.  Boyd concluded it was a piece of shit, a glorified F-111 was a US Air Force fighter bomber, manufactured by General Dynamics, which supported Secretary of Defense McNamara's technological goal of cost-effectiveness by being multipurpose supporting a variety of: close air support, air-to-air combat, air-to-ground, and nuclear-attack; missions, with the first turbofan power plant, and the first swing wing implementation explains Robert Coram.  Its weight: 85,000 lb.; and wing pivot infrastructure undermined its tactical fighter characteristics. 
.  Following that study, Boyd retired from the Air Force: August 31 1975. 

Coram notes that in November 1975, President Gerald Ford fired Secretary of Defense Schlesinger.  The Air Force resumed its efforts to kill the A-10 Warthog CAS aircraft.  It was promoted and developed by Pierre Sprey who ensured it matched the requirements of Vietnam war US CAS pilots and reflected the observations of top German Stuka pilot Hans Rudel. 
and the Air Force chief of staff ordered F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 
s to be wired for delivery of nuclear weapons. 

317 Destruction and Creation
Coram describes the 1970s US is the United States of America.   military as struggling, beaten in Vietnam by a small developing nation, but unwilling to change its philosophy: the hierarchy was rigid, the senior members of the officer corps were focused on management [of their careers], and failure was attributed to others; and disinterested in and uninformed of the historic thinking on military strategy.  However, the company and field grade officers accepted that they had been beaten and looked for a better approach.  And they wanted leaders who loved America more than their careers. 

In his decision to retire Boyd left himself, his wife and family of five children with a very small pension.  And he was not going to compromise and take a job with a defense contractor.  So he determined to reduce his expenses as much as possible, which his wife and family found maddening.  But Coram notes he did invest in books, which he assimilated and discussed late at night on the phone with the acolytes.  Boyd believed "if you want to understand something, take it to the extremes or examine its opposites." and Boyd aimed to understand the creative process (learning theory) that had led him to E-M theory is Energy-Maneuverability Theory, John Boyd's quantification of how thrust and drag ratios define the flying characteristics of aircraft, at a particular altitude, airspeed, temperature, angle of bank, and G-load.  In air-to-air combat a pilot wants to know the aircraft's current specific energy rate (p sub s) relative to his adversary.  At a given: altitude, G, velocity; an aircraft has a defined drag.  And at that altitude and temperature the engine has a maximum potential thrust.  Boyd was quantifying how quickly the pilot could gain specific energy: which depends on the difference between the engine's available thrust and the airplane's current drag, P sub s = ((thrust - drag) / weight) * velocity; to understand what was the reserve of energy available to support a maneuver.  Boyd normalized the result relative to the weight of the aircraft to allow comparisons of different types of aircraft. 
, ideas which he developed into a brief called Destruction and Creation was John Boyd's brief and paper on creativity and learning theory - where he explored the relationship between the observer and what is observed and how that relationship can creatively change as the mind dynamically constructs entities and relationships between them.  Boyd stresses we can catalyze the process if we then break and rearrange the relationships, a mental mechanism explained systematically by Hofstadter.  Boyd notes introspection of the creation identifies imperfections which he concludes can be inherent consequences of: Godel's theorem, uncertainty of atomic observations, entropy; to which CAS theory would add contributions: frozen accidents, uncomputable decisions, the autogenic ratchet, unknowable future of strategies seeking niches at the edge of chaos, and consciousness recreating it; at macroscale.  Robert Coram shows Boyd's own experiences linking this mental process and physical processes that can be aligned in new creations.  For the physical instantiations to be realized as innovations, constraints must be thrown off allowing the destruction of the old framework and progress towards the new.  In Boyd's situation the 'old' was important to the Air Force hierarchy who worked to maintain the extended phenotypical alignment, but the 'new' could be developed if powerful executives: chief of staff, congressional leader, defense secretary; were aware of the possibility and needed the change to occur, and Boyd was supported by a network of complementary personalities.  Boyd felt the goal of creation was to gain independence, but this is likely a reflection of his powerful gut 'challenger' personality type, and experience working within a power hierarchy.  Our genes demand survival long enough to reproduce. 
Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, was soon to be promoted to deputy assistant secretary of defense, but he and the others also read the books, so they could critique and contribute to Boyd's thinking.  Coram asserts Boyd needed the dialectic Wilhelm Friedrich developed an influential philosophy including: 
  • Dialectic includes thesis, antithesis and synthesis
  • German
  • History
  • Knowledge
  • Logic is the same as metaphysics for Hegel - he emphasizes that Reality can be deduced from the sole consideration that it must be not self-contradictory, where he leverages the dialectic.  Since an ordinary predicate when qualifying the whole of Reality is self-contradictory, he applies the dialectic until consistency is reached with the Absolute. 
of debate.  Each acolyte had a different role:
Boyd was developing two other briefs:

327 OODA Loop
Coram laments that by 1976 young officers were desperate for a new approach that would help them win in battle.  Reflecting this need Boyd applied his Destruction and Creation was John Boyd's brief and paper on creativity and learning theory - where he explored the relationship between the observer and what is observed and how that relationship can creatively change as the mind dynamically constructs entities and relationships between them.  Boyd stresses we can catalyze the process if we then break and rearrange the relationships, a mental mechanism explained systematically by Hofstadter.  Boyd notes introspection of the creation identifies imperfections which he concludes can be inherent consequences of: Godel's theorem, uncertainty of atomic observations, entropy; to which CAS theory would add contributions: frozen accidents, uncomputable decisions, the autogenic ratchet, unknowable future of strategies seeking niches at the edge of chaos, and consciousness recreating it; at macroscale.  Robert Coram shows Boyd's own experiences linking this mental process and physical processes that can be aligned in new creations.  For the physical instantiations to be realized as innovations, constraints must be thrown off allowing the destruction of the old framework and progress towards the new.  In Boyd's situation the 'old' was important to the Air Force hierarchy who worked to maintain the extended phenotypical alignment, but the 'new' could be developed if powerful executives: chief of staff, congressional leader, defense secretary; were aware of the possibility and needed the change to occur, and Boyd was supported by a network of complementary personalities.  Boyd felt the goal of creation was to gain independence, but this is likely a reflection of his powerful gut 'challenger' personality type, and experience working within a power hierarchy.  Our genes demand survival long enough to reproduce. 
logic to operations, developing a thorough definition of maneuverability is the capability of performing fast-transient shifts in velocity and direction.  Robert Coram explains how, for an air warfare dogfight, John Boyd associated better maneuverability with two opportunities:
  1. It can force an attacking aircraft out of a favorable firing position
  2. It can enable a pursuing pilot to gain a favorable firing position; aircraft that could perform fast-transients, Boyd concluded, became an advantage if the pilot could operate at a faster 'tempo' than his or her enemy.  A pilot can prepare to do this by internalizing and applying the O-O-D-A Loop, during his or her development. 
, in the fast-transients brief was John Boyd's initial application of his Destruction and Creation process to develop a broader definition of Maneuverability.  Use of fast-transients can force an attacking aircraft off the firing position, and help a pursuing pilot obtain a firing position, if the pilot can operate at a faster tempo than his opponent, so quick it is disorienting and appears uncertain to the enemy who then over- or under-reacts.  Boyd based the brief on his analysis of the F-86 high hit rate against the MiG-15 which was a superior aircraft according to E-M theory.  But he also included an analysis of: von Manstein's Ardennes blitzkrieg strategy at the line of least expectations supported by Guderian & Rommel's shockingly rapid motorized thrusts across and beyond the Meuse, and Israel's raid on Entebbe Airport to rescue hostages. 
, first iteration of which was completed August 4, 1976.  Pilots could leverage a fast-transient to win a dogfight as long as they operated at a faster 'tempo describes the overall speed of a piece of music. 
' than the enemy. 

The initial version of his next brief, Patterns of Conflict, was completed a month later.  Boyd was purposefully ambiguous, intent on encouraging the brief's creative impact.  And he insisted on recipients hearing the full brief, which in later variants took two days to deliver.  'Patterns' starts with Boyd introducing the O-O-D-A Loop is the observe-orient-decide-act cycle, John Boyd's conception of how an adult autonomous entity responds to signals from its proximate environment and rapidly decides and instantiates (Fingerspitzengefuhl) its strategic goal cascade, having internalized during development (o-O-d-a) the implications of a SWOT of its capabilities relative to its local enemies.  , which he illustrates the operation of using examples of conflicts from military history. 

Boyd's review of blitzkrieg led him to iteratively discover a detailed history of military strategy.  He reviewed the ideas of great captains: Sun Tzu, Alexander the great, Hannibal, Belisarius, Genghis Khan, Tamerlane, Napoleon, Clausewitz, Manstein; and found Sun Tzu's The Art of War particularly credible, as Boyd related it to his experiences of successful air-to-air combat.  He marveled at Hannibal's destruction of the Roman army at Cannae.  He noted that: deception, speed, fluidity of action, targeting weak points; certain strategies were used effectively by great captains to defeat far larger forces.  Boyd accepted Sun Tzu's assertion that the best commander is the one who wins while avoiding battle.  Instead he undermines enemy cohesion, induces paralysis and generates collapse in his enemies as they struggle with confusion, disorder, panic and chaos.  These ideas are integrated into Patterns of Conflict

With the O-O-D-A Loop Boyd highlights how developing warrior leaders aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  John Adair developed a leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
can:
Coram stresses that the Loop must be iterated over repeatedly and the cycles must not slow down. 

After Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
briefed Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 
had better turning performance than the F-15 is a US Air Force fighter, built as the F-X program, and re-designated F-15 after it was forced to become a fixed wing aircraft.  Robert Coram explains that for John Boyd it epitomized the multi-role, master of none, 'addiction' of the Air Force bureaucracy and its aligned defense contractors.  This extended phenotype's need to add features: tail hook, nose wheel steering, maintenance ladder, huge radar; expanded its weight, making it impossible to maneuver in a dogfight while retaining usable energy. 
, and advocated canceling the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
, he was passed over for promotion to Colonel by the Air Force.  He talked with Boyd, gave up on his career progression, and obtained an appointment at Andrews AFB is Air Force Base. 


Tom Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, now one of the most senior non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, offered Boyd a job in the TacAir shop.  Boyd asked for someone to assist him, and Christie proposed Chuck Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
who was by then working at a think tank, called him and generated a job for him.  Boyd's job arrangement was flexible allowing him time to lecture to Leopold was born January 6th 1946.  He was keen to attend the Air Force Academy, and achieved the highest score in his math exams ever in northwest Chicago.  At the Academy he proved a near genius at electrical engineering, but was hopeless at Political Science, English and History.  The Air Force sent him to graduate school where he obtained a master's degree at 22.  He was second in his flight class at Williams AFB to solo a T-38, but herniated disk ended his flying career.  He paid his own way at night school to earn a Ph.D.  Leopold's father died a year before he was sent to the Pentagon.  There he was assigned to the Office of Development Plans, reporting to Colonel John Boyd.  He developed an analysis of the B-1 development program, concluding the costs were astronomical, and in breach of federal law.  Boyd coached him to be very conservative with the numbers used in the B-1 critique.  He was required to brief a series of generals and stood his ground, which impressed Boyd who subsequently treated him as an acolyte.  The four star generals convened a corona to decide on what to do with the B-1.  Chuck Spinney was briefing them because Leopold was on holiday.  The generals arranged to offer Leopold the accolade of a named transfer, aiming to get him away from Boyd and Spinney.  But Leopold refused it, choosing to do something rather than to be someone.  To save him from forced resignation, Boyd engineered a teaching job for Leopold at the Air Force Academy, where Boyd would later lecture to his students on the O-O-D-A Loop. 
's cadets at the Air Force Academy, but Coram notes while there, Boyd crossed paths with a 1950s fighter pilot he had known at Nellis AFB is near Las Vegas, Nevada, in a vast desert, is the home of the US Air Force fighter pilots.  Year-round good weather in Southern Nevada made Nellis perfect for dogfighting.  Robert Coram notes John Boyd trained there to prepare for air-to-air combat in Korea. 
, Bob Kelly, who had focused on his career to become a three-star general and the Academy superintendent, Boyd was openly insulting. 

In June 1977 Boyd visited his mother, now at a Florida nursing home due to progressive dementia is a classification of memory impairment, constrained feelings and enfeebled or extinct intellect.  The most common form for people under 60 is FTD.  Dementia has multiple causes including: vascular disease (inducing VCI) including strokes, head trauma, syphilis and mercury poisoning for treating syphilis, alcoholism, B12 deficiency (Sep 2016), privation, Androgen deprivation therapy (Oct 2016), stress, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and prion infections such as CJD and kuru.  The condition is typically chronic and treatment long term (Laguna Honda ward) and is predicted by Stanley Prusiner to become a major burden on the health system.  It may be possible to constrain the development some forms of dementia by: physical activity, hypertension management, and ongoing cognitive training.  Dementia appears to develop faster in women than men.  , and found her near to death.  He called his sister Marion to let her visit, but his mother died too quickly. 

345 Reform
Coram writes that by 1978, both officers and enlisted personnel were leaving the military services in large numbers in disgust at the:
  • Corruption and careerism of the military hierarchy. 
  • Lack or readiness of their weapon systems.  They didn't perform to specification and were costly to purchase and operate; in response the military doubled down on the electronic battlefield.   
Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
asked Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
to review the military's retention and readiness problems.  Within weeks he was briefing early versions of "Defense Facts of Life," detailing:
Initially the brief had gaps and inaccuracies, which Boyd and Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
pushed to remove.  These reformers: Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, Boyd, Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
, Leopold was born January 6th 1946.  He was keen to attend the Air Force Academy, and achieved the highest score in his math exams ever in northwest Chicago.  At the Academy he proved a near genius at electrical engineering, but was hopeless at Political Science, English and History.  The Air Force sent him to graduate school where he obtained a master's degree at 22.  He was second in his flight class at Williams AFB to solo a T-38, but herniated disk ended his flying career.  He paid his own way at night school to earn a Ph.D.  Leopold's father died a year before he was sent to the Pentagon.  There he was assigned to the Office of Development Plans, reporting to Colonel John Boyd.  He developed an analysis of the B-1 development program, concluding the costs were astronomical, and in breach of federal law.  Boyd coached him to be very conservative with the numbers used in the B-1 critique.  He was required to brief a series of generals and stood his ground, which impressed Boyd who subsequently treated him as an acolyte.  The four star generals convened a corona to decide on what to do with the B-1.  Chuck Spinney was briefing them because Leopold was on holiday.  The generals arranged to offer Leopold the accolade of a named transfer, aiming to get him away from Boyd and Spinney.  But Leopold refused it, choosing to do something rather than to be someone.  To save him from forced resignation, Boyd engineered a teaching job for Leopold at the Air Force Academy, where Boyd would later lecture to his students on the O-O-D-A Loop. 
, Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
, Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
, Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
; aimed to reform the Pentagon, arguing that technology should reinforce
The complexity of behavior is explored through Sapolsky developing scenarios of our best and worst behaviors across time spans, and scientific subjects including: anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, sociology.  The rich network of adaptive flows he outlines provides insights and highlight challenges for scientific research on behavior. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory builds on Sapolsky's details highlighting the strategies that evolution has captured to successfully enter niches we now occupy. 

behavior
, not drive it.  This is the premise of PatternsSpinney's report was a powerful weapon because the Air Force did not know how to attack the truth, effectively. 

Reform drove Boyd's ideas out into: Congress, the Marine Corp including Colonel Al Gray, the Army, the media; while the Air Force was busy fighting the reformers.  But eventually they relented and the senior generals gathered to hear Spinney's Defense Facts of Life.  They argued about every statement and one two-star collapsed.  The Air Force labeled the reformers "dark and satanic forces."  Senator Sam Nunn of the Armed Services Committee, asked for a briefing from Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
.  Secretary of Defense Brown refused.  Each time Nunn requested the brief Brown refused.  But in November 1980, when Reagan was elected, Brown under threat of subpoena relented, so Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
, Boyd and Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
met with Nunn.  Nunn told Spinney to remove the classified details from the briefing. 

Barton Gellman details the strategies used by Vice President Cheney to align the global system with his economics, defense, and energy goals. 
Dick Cheney
, while a congressman from Wyoming, and a member of the House Intelligence Committee, heard the Patterns brief, and then the others, and asked Boyd to talk tactics are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
and strategy at his office.  Subsequently he was a founder of the Reform Caucus on Capital Hill. 

Jim Fallows, published National Defense, extending his Atlantic articles.  It was highly critical of the Pentagon and the defense industry, and promoted Boyd and the Reformers.  The book highlighted how the F-16 is a US Air Force fighter, developed to reflect the single engine light weight fighter concept.  The Air Force resisted Boyd's conception, and enhanced it, to protect the F-15's niche, to be a multi-mission hybrid, including a nuclear bomber. 
had been 'enhanced' from a low cost, lightweight fighter, into an all-weather bomber. 

On becoming president, Ronald Reagan, previously governor of California, where Rockwell was based, resurrected the B-1 bomber manufactured by Rockwell for the US Air Force was, according to Robert Coram, a massively, & increasingly expensive, high technology, swing wing aircraft, loved by the budget expanding Air Force senior generals.  The development program was cancelled by President Carter, and then resurrected by President Reagan.  The B-1 failed to achieve its strategic goals: bigger, higher, faster, farther; or to perform to its specifications: it did not present the small radar cross section to enemy radar, underperformed its goal range, failed to reach its electronic countermeasures goals, could not fly at high altitudes when combat loaded, was not able to carpet bomb due to wind turbulence issues preventing bombs in the rear bays from dropping unless a rotary cylinder and long arms were attached. 
Bomber.  Carter had killed it because it cost $167 million a copy.  By 1981, the cost had escalated to $287 million a copy. 

360 The great wheel of conspiracy
Senators viewed President Reagan and his nominee for secretary of defense, Caspar Weinberger as oriented towards the military industrial complex and keen to enable the flow of procurement money.  But then Sam Nunn spoke at Weinberger's February 1981 confirmation hearing arguing that people at the Pentagon asserted that throwing money at the armed services was not the solution to the Pentagon's budget problems.  He asserted their voices were being constrained.  He referenced an unclassified version of the Spinney Report

Coram notes that reporters took notice of Nunn's comments:
  • They were unexpected since he was central to the defense establishment, 
  • The Pentagon had successfully blocked many of their stories, generating resentment; lots of them descended on the Pentagon, and published stories on the Spinney Report.  
Boyd continued to brief Patterns, which led to media interest in the O-O-D-A Loop is the observe-orient-decide-act cycle, John Boyd's conception of how an adult autonomous entity responds to signals from its proximate environment and rapidly decides and instantiates (Fingerspitzengefuhl) its strategic goal cascade, having internalized during development (o-O-d-a) the implications of a SWOT of its capabilities relative to its local enemies.   and Boyd too.  The Pentagon had no other military theorists, so it did not have an immediate position to respond to Boyd's media reports.  The generals moved to correct the situation.  They had Lieutenant Colonel Walt Kloss, who managed the changes to the massive highly classified briefing book for presentation to Reagan appointees; add a new position description, which the Reformers called the "Great Wheel of Conspiracy."  Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
was at the center of Kloss's wheel, but was of a rank where he could look at the book but not remove it from the office.  With his near photographic memory he related details to the others:

Chuck Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
became a media figure.  David Chu, was born in New York City in 1944, he obtained a Ph.D. in Economics from Yale, was an army officer working in the Office of the Controller, before becoming an assistant director of National Security and Internal Affairs at the CBO from 1978 to 1981.  In 1981 David became Director of Program Analysis and Evaluation in the OSD, a political appointment within the Reagan Administration.  He was promoted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense in the George H. W. Bush administration.  During the Democratic Clinton presidency, 1993 to 2001, Chu was a senior executive at RAND.  Chu was made Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness in the George W. Bush Administration, 2001 to 2008.  During the Obama presidency, 2009 to 2016, he was president and CEO of IDA, retiring in 2019. 
commanded that Spinney stop briefing "Defense Facts of Life" and work on something else.  Spinney started developing "Plans / Reality Mismatch," about the underestimated cost of proposed new weapon systems.  Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
showed the Reagan administration had underestimated the cost of the defense buildup by $500 billion.  Time was developing a lead article about the reform movement and asked Boyd for a cover shot.  Boyd proposed Spinney, telling him correctly it would provide essential cover for when the Generals struck back at Spinney.  They asked for briefings by Spinney, but then Chu, was born in New York City in 1944, he obtained a Ph.D. in Economics from Yale, was an army officer working in the Office of the Controller, before becoming an assistant director of National Security and Internal Affairs at the CBO from 1978 to 1981.  In 1981 David became Director of Program Analysis and Evaluation in the OSD, a political appointment within the Reagan Administration.  He was promoted to the Assistant Secretary of Defense in the George H. W. Bush administration.  During the Democratic Clinton presidency, 1993 to 2001, Chu was a senior executive at RAND.  Chu was made Under Secretary of Defense for Personnel and Readiness in the George W. Bush Administration, 2001 to 2008.  During the Obama presidency, 2009 to 2016, he was president and CEO of IDA, retiring in 2019. 
instructed Spinney to stop briefing while an independent report, which was unclassified and mentioned Spinney by name, evaluated Plans.  Boyd recommended Spinney distribute copies of the independent report widely within the Pentagon and of course it leaked.  Other studies, independent of the Reformers, soon appeared confirming Spinney's findings. 

Senator Grassley of Iowa, asked Secretary of Defense, Weinberger for a copy of Spinney's study, but Weinberger refused.  Grassley went to the Pentagon and asked to see Spinney.  Again Grassley was rebuffed.  So he called for Senate hearings.  The Pentagon responded by asking Senator Tower, chair of the Armed Services Committee to block Grassley's hearings.  When that failed they sent Spinney and Chu to the hearings.  Each time Spinney gave his brief, Chu would say it was a historical study and no longer applied.  The generals were pleased. 

Senator Grassley requested Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
apply his analysis to the current years of the Reagan Administration.  Spinney responded with a new brief "Is History Repeating Itself?" In February 1984, Spinney testified to the House and Senate Budget Committees and told them the problems applied to the Reagan administration too.  

369 Boyd joins the marines
Coram explains that the Air Force was discouraged from developing a history based approach to warfare, since this would highlight that air power is typically used in close alignment with ground forces, projected to support the operations of the army.  Boyd's ideas aligned with this subordinate role.  So the Air Force chose not to think about how airpower should integrate in a war plan.  Conversely the Army's Vietnam experience drove it to reinvent itself.  Lieutenant Colonel Huba Wass de Czege, worked with Boyd, developing a new doctrine for the Army.  By 1982 it was to be announced, stressing four tenets: initiative, agility, depth of operations, and synchronization; the first three aligning with Boyd's inputs while synchronization, added by the executive, dragged in the old ideas and undermined maneuver warfare, disappointing Boyd and Wass de Czege.  

Coram explains why Boyd was able to have more of an impact on the Marines: they have a warrior culture, the branch was present since the founding of the nation, marines fight in close combat, and for a decade he was enabled by Lieutenant Colonel Michael Duncan Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 


Major General Bernard Trainor, the director of education in the Marine Corps, placed Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
in charge of tactics are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
at the AWS is the US Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School at base Quantico.  Amphibious warfare is unique to the Marines in the US military.  They are tasked with doing it better than anyone else. 
at Quantico is a US Marine base thirty miles south of Washington D.C. where Marine officers are educated and trained. 
.  His brief was transformational:
Initially Wyle, replaced the old lesson plans with details from famous battles.  But he wanted to present an integrated view of how to think to win at warfare against larger forces.  He asked Bill Lind for advice and Lind recommended Colonel John Boyd.  Boyd came to AWS and presented Patterns at the tactics class.  It went down really well with the marines who saw how his ideas could be turned into tactics on the modern battlefield. 
380 Semper Fi
Boyd added Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
to his phone call group.  And they talked at Quantico is a US Marine base thirty miles south of Washington D.C. where Marine officers are educated and trained. 
of how to improve tactics at the AWS.  Boyd & Wyly concluded they should expose the students, mostly young captains, to all ideas.  So they created a reading list with Trainor's blessing exploring key military history from around the world.  And since Boyd & Wyly were credible combat veterans the students explored the ideas with them.  And Wyly made Boyd's briefing documents accessible supporting Boyd's lecturing at the college.  And Boyd helped shape the tactical are goals and actions which respond to the actions of the enemy in a combat, rather than focusing on ones own strategic direction. 
thinking as the students performed exercises - Fight the enemy, not the terrain.  Wyly shifted the fundamental content of the class to advocate fluid and fast-moving tactics:
A group
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emerged
who spent time developing their understanding of maneuver warfare, and they started to spread through the marine bases.  But then Trainor transferred from Quantico and reaction to Wyly's changes began to strengthen.  The new reactionary head of the AWS is the US Marine Corps Amphibious Warfare School at base Quantico.  Amphibious warfare is unique to the Marines in the US military.  They are tasked with doing it better than anyone else. 
had Wyly assigned to presenting the standard amphibious warfare brief, and other Marines moved in for the kill.  Boyd used his connections to have deputy secretary of defense Carlucci order the transfer of Wyly to his office.  While there Wyly became a full colonel.  But his mother had become gravely ill living in Kansas City, so Wyly asked to serve at the Naval ROTC at the University of Kansas.  And in 1983 when General Kelly, who hated maneuver warfare, became commandant of the Marine Corps, its leaders abandoned support for Boyd's tactics. 

Warrior general Al Gray, who had heard Boyd's briefings as a colonel, took the maneuver warfare ideas to Camp Lejeune as commander of the 2nd Marine Division.  Gray encouraged the use of free-play exercise - where there is no scenario or rules.  It was a huge threat to the battalion commanders, focused on moving up the Marine hierarchy, because by explicitly testing their abilities it meant they could fail.  Otherwise, with no mistakes on their record, a battalion commander could expect within a year or two to be promoted to full colonel.  Coram links the free-play exercises and maneuver warfare training to the huge contribution, generating confusion and uncertainty in the enemy, two companies of marines had in the US invasion of Grenada, and later in the Gulf War.  And he explains that when James Webb became secretary of the Navy in 1987 he appointed Gray as the new commandant.  At the same time Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
was ordered to Okinawa as assistant chief of staff, in charge of operations and training for the western Pacific.  And then Gray had him transferred back to Quantico, to write a campaign plan for the Marine Corps and to create the Marine Corps University.  Gray supported Wyly's work, but the officers in between pushed back hard.  His immediate boss pushed for him to be fired.  So Gray had him transferred to be the vice president of the Marine Corps University.  But the hierarchy blocked his promotion and pushed for Wyly's retirement.  He had shifted the Marines to be the most intellectual branch of the US military when he retired, a pariah. 

398 Water-walker
Coram reviews the contribution of acolyte Jim Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
.  Boyd mentored Burton and Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
, and used them to do what he could no longer do himself.  Burton was unusual, having been a military assistant is a US military role where a highly regarded officer nominally assists the senior civilians in the Pentagon, a liaison between their civilian boss and their branch of the service.  There are less than 40 such roles.  Robert Coram explains that the role is conflicted.  In reality they are asked to spy, are only in the role to protect the interests of their generals and their branch.  They are to provide an updated picture of their civilian boss to their generals.  Most people last in the role for less than two years.  A military aide is rarely loyal to his civilian boss because eventually he will return to regular military duties.  If the assistant has been loyal to his generals and has protected the interest of his service branch he will probably be promoted. 
to three consecutive assistant secretaries of the Air Force.  When Burton was assigned his third tour in the OSD is the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon.   and was asked to oversee the testing of various weapons, the vice chief of staff of the Air Force, with three days left before his retirement, cancelled Burton's posting, and ordered him to Wright-Patterson AFB in Dayton, Ohio, includes Wright Field and Patterson AFB.  It is part of the US AFSC and includes the Air Force Museum, Propulsion Laboratory and the Flight Dynamics Laboratory, where the Air Force conducts basic research into aircraft and engines.  The concentration of research and status undermines the end-to-end architecture and iterative cycles needed to evolve effective aircraft and associated services. 
.  But the assistant secretary of defense threatened to tell the press of this constitutional crisis and made the generals, including the vice chief of staff, back down.  Burton started his OSD is the Office of the Secretary of Defense at the Pentagon.   testing assignment in June 1982. 

Pierre Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
argued for Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
to evaluate how vulnerable American aircraft and armor were to Soviet weapons, since the development process currently only included computer based
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
modeling
specified by the US is the United States of America.   military.  Burton proposed a live-fire test program used full capability enemy: Soviet; rockets and canons fired at US tanks: M1-A1; and armor: Bradley Fighting Vehicle; to test their vulnerability during the cold-war.  It was a priority of Pierre Sprey, and proposed by military assistant Jim Burton as part of the OSD testing process. 
, and decided to apply it to the Bradley was intended to be an enhanced armored personnel carrier, adding a turret and gun.  It was very important to the Army, justifying $11 billion of the Army's budget from Congress in 1982, explains Robert Coram.  But its aluminum armor was too light to fight tanks, leaving its value proposition mysterious.  The possibility of explosions of its fuel tanks and ammunition magazines, induced by projectiles penetrating the light armor, created risks for the troops being transported. 
, which was then in early production, reducing the cost of applying any corrections identified.  He sent the Army's ballistic research laboratory $500,000 to test the Bradley with real Soviet weapons.  But the tests were modified so the Bradley must pass: using Rumanian-made rockets - which have far smaller warheads than those used by the Soviets, and the internal diesel fuel tanks were filled with water!  Boyd encouraged Burton to push back, seeing this as an operational test for Patterns.  But persuasion did not modify the Army's strategies.  And the Army proposed delaying the completion of the tests for two years, by which time the personnel carrier would be globally embedded in the Army's operations.  Boyd argued to put the O-O-D-A loop is the observe-orient-decide-act cycle, John Boyd's conception of how an adult autonomous entity responds to signals from its proximate environment and rapidly decides and instantiates (Fingerspitzengefuhl) its strategic goal cascade, having internalized during development (o-O-d-a) the implications of a SWOT of its capabilities relative to its local enemies.   into practice: Keep the initiative, never panic, always do enough research to be correct about the details you propose, Don't criticize the Bradley - just the testing process - to help it protect the lives of American soldiers, stay within the system - don't be a whistle-blower; and he reviewed Burton's situation daily as the fight began:

413 They think I'm a Kook
Boyd asked Mary Ellen to work with him or revising Patterns.  It helped them to get over having not spoken for two years.  In the summer of 1987 Boyd developed two new briefings:

Boyd was still the hub of the acolyte network, but was starting to have doubts about the network's contribution.  After all the time they had dedicated to forcing the Pentagon to improve the strategies,
Tools and the businesses that produce them have evolved dramatically.  W Brian Arthur shows how this occurred.
tools
and
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
infrastructure
it provided to the troops, the peace time military hierarchy just pushed back viciously.  The generals had succeeded in damaging: Burton was raised by his grandmother after his parents divorced and he never had a father.  He was always driven to accomplish things: an outstanding athelite, president of his senior class in Normal, Illinois, one of the eight selected from 10,000 Illinois applicants for the first class at the Air Force Academy.  Curtis LeMay helped ensure the members of that first set of graduates were given special treatment.  Burton was the first Academy graduate to attend the Squadron Officers School, Air Command and Staff College, and Industrial College of the Armed Forces, he had a master's degree in business and advanced training in mechanical engineering, every promotion was early; leaving him five years ahead of contemporaries to become a general.  But Burton became an acolyte of John Boyd, and as his attitude changed he became a passed over Colonel.  Robert Coram explains, Burton had become a military assistant who was unwilling to bend to the wishes of the military hierarchy.  He had highlighted to newly appointed secretary of defense Rumsfeld that the F-16 had better turning performance than the F-15.  And he advocated cancelling the B-1 because of its huge cost and terrible performance.  His work for OSD on testing developing US weapons: live-fire testing; was the biggest threat to the generals.  He had chosen to do good work rather than enhance his career.  When Burton and Boyd had first met Burton was a successful careerist, but Boyd felt Lieutenant Colonel Burton had an unbending spirit and his exceptional virtues could be redirected to changing the world.  Burton was hired as Boyd's deputy. 
and Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
; and were waiting for media attention to drift away from Spinney was born at Wright-Patterson AFB, the son of a US Air Force colonel.  He is a mechanical engineer who graduated from Lehigh University in 1967.  He was sworn in by his father when he joined the Air Force and was assigned to Wright-Patterson modeling the effects of bullets on F-105s shot down in Vietnam.  Spinney out maneuvered Christie for $50,000 at the Aberdeen Proving Grounds, so Christie offered him a job at Eglin AFB.  Spinney then recommended the Air Force cancel a contract with a national consulting company.  The CEO warned Spinney that he would destroy his career, to which Spinney retorted "I'm a lieutenant.  I can't go down."  The Air Force sent Spinney to graduate school, where he got an MBA oriented to applied statistics.  He transferred to the Pentagon where he delivered the mail!  But captain Spinney talked with Ray Leopold and liked what Ray was doing.  Spinney said he would be interested in contributing too, so Ray asked colonel Boyd to interview Spinney, who became another acolyte of Boyd in the Office of Development Plans.  He developed the B-1 Corona brief for Boyd's line of command, which Burton was to present to the two-star general.  The general told Spinney to fix the numbers.  He didn't but he was so disappointed with the Air Force hierarchy that he left the Air Force.  Spinney worked at a think tank while studying for his Ph.D., where Christie called and offered him a job at TacAir, working alongside Boyd to hit back at the corrupt hierarchy.  Christie focused him on the Air Force's retention and readiness problems.  While media attention remained on the cost overruns of procurement and Spinney's reports: Defense Facts of life, Plans /Reality Mismatch; he was safe, Boyd got him on the cover of Time.  Spinney was asked to brief Senator Grassley's congressional budget committee.  Grassley ensured the cost problems were exposed.  But eventually the media focus shifted elsewhere.  The Pentagon gave Spinney a poor performance rating as a start to having him fired.  The tactic was exposed and Weinberger ordered a more favorable rating.  But Chuck remained a marked man.  During Desert Shield Spinney thought about applying Boyd's ideas to attacking Iraq's forces with an enveloping tank thrust.  He talked with Boyd who shut him down.  But when Desert Storm was executed Spinney noted the Army was using Boyd's language to describe its maneuver approach.  And as Boyd died Spinney ensured his papers were transferred to Quantico.  He remained at TacAir, ignored by the Pentagon who applied an isolation policy so Boyd's ideas did not contaminate any additional staff.  He made the F/A-18 wing problems a national issue.  And he still gives Boyd's Patterns briefing at Quantico. 
so they could punish him.  Pierre Sprey was a McNamara Whiz Kid, who, according to Robert Coram, entered Yale at fifteen graduating with a double major in French literature and mechanical engineering, then studied statistics and operational research at Cornell before running the statistical consulting shop at Grumman Aviation, before working for McNamara under Alain Enthoven.  Sprey became an expert on the history of warfare and tactical aviation.  He developed a report on interdiction bombing which asserted it would not deter Soviet forces from invading Western Europe and that the US Air Force should focus on CAS and providing tactical air cover.  He was asked to manage the program to develop the A-10, where he leveraged John Boyd's E-M theory and data.  Sprey was a vocal critic of the Pentagon's expensive, complex procurement process, and especially the computer model based vulnerability testing of tanks and armored vehicles, since the models weren't validated by field testing.  He helped Jim Burton to develop a live-fire test program to provide the validation. 
had left the Pentagon in disgust. 

Boyd developed some health issues: heart, tinnitus; and once these issues cleared up he became seriously depressed is a debilitating episodic state of extreme sadness, typically beginning in late teens or early twenties. This is accompanied by a lack of energy and emotion, which is facilitated by genetic predisposition - for example genes coding for relatively low serotonin levels, estrogen sensitive CREB-1 gene which increases women's incidence of depression at puberty; and an accumulation of traumatic events.  There is a significant risk of suicide: depression is involved in 50% of the 43,000 suicides in the US, and 15% of people with depression commit suicide.  Depression is the primary cause of disability with about 20 million Americans impacted by depression at any time.  There is evidence of shifts in the sleep/wake cycle in affected individuals (Dec 2015).  The affected person will experience a pathological sense of loss of control, prolonged sadness with feelings of hopelessness, helplessness & worthlessness, irritability, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, and inability to experience pleasure.  Michael Pollan concludes depression is fear of the past.  It affects 12% of men and 20% of women.  It appears to be associated with androgen deprivation therapy treatment for prostate cancer (Apr 2016).  Chronic stress depletes the nucleus accumbens of dopamine, biasing humans towards depression.  Depression easily leads to following unhealthy pathways: drinking, overeating; which increase the risk of heart disease.   It has been associated with an aging related B12 deficiency (Sep 2016).  During depression, stress mediates inhibition of dopamine signalling.  Both depression and stress activate the adrenal glands' release of cortisol, which will, over the long term, impact the PFC.  There is an association between depression and additional brain regions: Enlarged & more active amygdala, Hippocampal dendrite and spine number reductions & in longer bouts hippocampal volume reductions and memory problems, Dorsal raphe nucleus linked to loneliness, Defective functioning of the hypothalamus undermining appetite and sex drive, Abnormalities of the ACC.  Mayberg notes ACC area 25: serotonin transporters are particularly active in depressed people and lower the serotonin in area 25 impacting the emotion circuit it hubs, inducing bodily sensations that patients can't place or consciously do anything about; and right anterior insula: which normally generates emotions from internal feelings instead feel dead inside; are critical in depression.  Childhood adversity can increase depression risk by linking recollections of uncontrollable situations to overgeneralizations that life will always be terrible and uncontrollable.  Sufferers of mild autism often develop depression.  Treatments include: CBT which works well for cases with below average activity of the right anterior insula (mild and moderate depression), UMHS depression management, deep-brain stimulation of the anterior insula to slow firing of area 25.  Drug treatments are required for cases with above average activity of the right anterior insula.  As of 2010 drug treatments: SSRIs (Prozac), MAO, monoamine reuptake inhibitors; take weeks to facilitate a response & many patients do not respond to the first drug applied, often prolonging the agony.  By 2018, Kandel notes, Ketamine is being tested as a short term treatment, as it acts much faster, reversing the effect of cortisol in stimulating glutamate signalling, and because it reverses the atrophy induced by chronic stress.   Genomic predictions of which treatment will be effective have not been possible because: Not all clinical depressions are the same, a standard definition of drug response is difficult;

Tom Christie was born in Pensacola on the 28th May 1935, the first of five children of a wife beating, gambler, drunkard, and womanizer, according to Robert Coram.  When Tom tried to defend his mother he was beaten too.  Tom learned to survive, coping with his father in a poor family, by avoiding the notice of those who could harm him.  He enjoyed his education, excelling academically and at baseball.  He studied mathematics at Jesuit Spring Hill College, graduating in 1955 and got a civilian job at Eglin AFB.  Unusually, the US Air Force financed his graduate degree studies in applied mathematics at New York University.  Back in Eglin by 1962 he was assigned to the Air Force Armament Center's Ballistics Division, tasked with quantifying the bombing tables.  Christie's quiet, self-effacing personality helped him achieve his goals within the military bureaucracy, staying undetected by those who would block his projects.  He was keen to make a difference to science and the Air Force which he did through an informal partnership, adding his complementary skills to John Boyd's, so together they would systematize aircraft maneuverability, with Boyd's E-M Theory.  Christie's success as a leader led to his running the Tactical Air Program at the Pentagon in the OSD.  While there he protected Boyd and Spinney, helped keep the Light Weight Fighter project in the Air Force budget, pushed the readiness issue within the DOD budget process, and helped bring the F-111D revelations to the Secretary of Defense.  When Boyd retired Christie remained in communication.  Christie became one of the top non-appointed civilians at the Pentagon, where he was able to provide Boyd with: a consulting role at Tac Air, an office and infrastructure; after Boyd retired.  But Christie's salary was still never sufficient to cope with his daughter's medical expenses. 
's
The stages of development of the human female, including how her brain changes and the impacts of this on her 'reality' across a full life span: conception, infantile puberty, girlhood, juvenile pause, adolescence, dating years, motherhood, post-menopause; are described.  Brizendine notes the significant difference in how emotions are processed by women compared to men. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory associates the stages with the evolutionary under-pinning, psychological implications and behavioral CAS. 

daughter
, on reaching puberty, ran away from home and started drifting in and out of institutions.  Christie discovered the cost of her medical bills was ruinous, so he resigned from the Pentagon to take a higher paying job in the private sector. 

Boyd and family were being forced from the flat he rented for years by his landlord.  He decided it was time to move the family to Delray Beach, Florida. 

420 The Ghetto-Colonel and the SecDef
Coram suggests Boyd disliked the slow pace of life he experienced in Delray Beach, Florida.  He spent most of his time thinking about his past life and calling the acolytes

Boyd's influence was highlighted in "The changing Face of War: Into the Fourth Generation," published in October 1989 which argued a Fourth Generation Warfare could
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emerge
from "Islamic traditions" where the "distinction between war and peace will be blurred to the vanishing point."  It described terrorists moving freely within American society "while actively seeking to subvert it."  Coram explains it was ignored by the Pentagon but was actively discussed in the Marine Corps and the Army's special operations. 

Coram notes how Saddam Hussein's invasion of Kuwait induced an American response: Operation Desert Shield and Desert Storm; which provided a test of Boyd's ideas and disappointments.  He outlines how Schwarzkopf's initial plan to confront Saddam's forces head on, disappointed Secretary of Defense,
Barton Gellman details the strategies used by Vice President Cheney to align the global system with his economics, defense, and energy goals. 
Cheney
, who had previously internalized and promoted Boyd's ideas.  And he implies that Boyd assisted Cheney in creating a least-expectations blitzkrieg strategy that Schwarzkopf developed into the successful operational plan. 

The First Gulf War was a significant test of Boyd's ideas and the Pentagon's resistance to them:
Boyd was included in the expert witnesses called by the House Armed Services Committee to review the performance of the high-technology equipment used in Desert Storm.  Boyd noted the alignment of high technology and maneuver warfare.  But he also noted the primacy of people and praised Wass de Czege and Wyly was a US Marine Corps officer, who had first joined the reserves as an enlisted Marine, where he learned order and discipline, marching while maintaining cover and dress and keeping perfect time.  Robert Coram explains he was a reserve private when he entered officer training at Annapolis.  He served a year on Okinawa, became a guerrilla warfare instructor at Camp Pendleton, he went to jump school, he attended the psychological-warfare school, the special-warfare school, and trained with the Army.  In 1965 Lieutenant Wyly went to Vietnam as a psychological-warfare officer, where he worked in rural villages and learned how marines then went to battle.  After an assignment in Washington D.C. he returned to Vietnam in 1969, based at An Hoa, as a Captain, leading Delta Company of the First Battalion of the 5th Marines.  He built a good rapport with his company including Lieutenant James Webb.  Delta was in daily fire fights and survived by dispersing and operating with guerrilla tactics.  Wyly used saturation patrols, out in the bush continuously aiming to keep the enemy off balance.  But Wyly observed that his senior leaders were not leveraging such tactics.  Wyly was now a decorated combat veteran, a senior captain and about to be promoted to major.  He transferred to Quantico where he trained at the AWS.  But he was disappointed to find the school still advocated that Marines use long linear attacks on beachheads, which resulted in huge casualty rates.  And having graduated from AWS he was assigned as an instructor in company level tactics where he had to teach advancing in line which he had seen fail disastrously in Vietnam.  Wyly was promoted to major and attended Command and Staff College where he wrote a study of Finland's war with the Soviet Union in 1939 to 1940, where the outnumbered Finns had prevailed.  He then entered a master's program at George Washington University.  After another assignment to Okinawa, Wyly returned to Quantico under orders from General Trainor to fix the tactical program at AWS. 
for driving the strategy into the Army and Marines.  And he noted the Marine Corps had just forced Wyly into retirement. 

Soon after, Boyd learned that he had advanced prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate gland.  Genomics detected several common DNA variants associated with increased risk of prostate cancer.  Dr. Francis Collins explains that a cluster of these risk variants lies in a stretch of 1 million DNA base pairs on chromosome 8.  The cluster contains seven or more risk variants, each of which can raise the risk of prostate cancer by 10 to 30%.  The high risk variants occur more frequently in African-American men than European or Asians.  African-Americans die from prostate cancer at more than twice the rate of Europeans.  Research in mice may explain a link between obesity and prostate cancer (Jan 2018).  The average diagnosis is at age 66.  Worldwide in 2012 there were 1.1 million cases from which 307,000 died.  A common life-saving (Feb 2017) treatment is androgen deprivation therapy, but it has worrying side effects.  Various classically defined types of cancer can occur.  The most common is adenocarcinoma associated with the epithelial gland cells that generate seminal fluid.  Epithelial cell differentiation potency makes these significant cancer agents.  Other very rare types of cancer that can start in the prostate are:
  • Sarcomas
  • Small cell carcinomas
  • Neuroendocrine tumors
  • Transitional cell carcinomas
.  He did not like the uncertain outcome of surgery and opted for radioactive pellets, placed in the prostate is a male only gland positioned between the bladder and rectum.  It generates part of the seminal fluid.  It enlarges during puberty to the size of a walnut stimulated by androgens and the remains stable or grows slowly with age.  The prostate includes several types of cells including the gland cells that make the prostate fluid.  The Urethra passes through the middle of the prostate. 
.  Eventually, Boyd's cancer is the out-of-control growth of cells, which have stopped obeying their cooperative schematic planning and signalling infrastructure.  It results from compounded: oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA caretaker; mutations in the DNA.  In 2010 one third of Americans are likely to die of cancer.  Cell division rates did not predict likelihood of cancer.  Viral infections are associated.  Radiation and carcinogen exposure are associated.  Lifestyle impacts the likelihood of cancer occurring: Drinking alcohol to excess, lack of exercise, Obesity, Smoking, More sun than your evolved melanin protection level; all significantly increase the risk of cancer occurring (Jul 2016). 
metastasized occupying the colon. 

This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
analysis suggests:

Robert Coram's insightful biography chronicles the creative contribution of a combative problem-solving achiever and his innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  Keynes noted it provided the unquantifiable beneficial possibility that limits fear of uncertainty.  Innovation operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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