Evening campfire rituals
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Evening campfire rituals

Summary
E O. Wilson argues that campfire gatherings on the savanna is the environment where hunter-gatherers primarily evolved.  Its grassland supported large herbivores that could be hunted easily across the plains.  Clumps of Acacia trees: with short trunks, and broad bows; & rocks supported places to hide from large carnivores.  Streams, especially important in times of drought, and paths add to the signals enabling orientation. 
supported the emergence of human creativity.  This resulted in man building cultures is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
and later exploring them, and their creator, through the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
.  Wilson identifies the transformative events, but he notes many of these are presently ignored by the humanities.  So he calls for a change of approach. 

He:

Following our summary of his arguments RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio frames these from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory:
  • The humanities are seen to be a functionalist framework for representing the cultural CAS while 
  • Wilson's desire to integrate the humanities and science gains support from viewing the endeavor as a network of layered CAS. 

The Origins of Creativity

In E. O. Wilson's book 'The Origins of Creativity' he asserts we are empowered by language but impacted by our ancient emotions are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
.  This combination, studied by the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
, makes us supremely advanced and supremely dangerous. 


Reach of creativity
Wilson asserts our love of novelty: discovering new entities are, according to Abbott, a class including people, families, corporations, hurricanes.  They implement abstract designs and are demarcatable by their reduced entropy relative to their components.  Rovelli notes entities are a collection of relations and events, but memory and our continuous process of anticipation, organizes the series of quantized interactions we perceive into an illusion of permanent objects flowing from past to future.  Abbott identifies two types of entity:
  1. At equilibrium entities,
  2. Autonomous entities, which can control how they are affected by outside forces;
and processes, solving old challenges, discovering new ones, aesthetic surprise of unanticipated facts and theories, pleasure of new faces, thrill of new worlds; drives an innate quest for originality, judged by the magnitude of our emotive response is according to Damasio, a process including a collection of actions: release of specific chemicals in sites of the CNS or their transport, by neural signalling to varied regions of the nervous system and body.  Endocrine glands are signalled and produce molecules capable of altering body function; altering viscera, that changes the homeostatic state of the organism, and may change the spontaneous feelings too.  A cascade of spontaneous homeostatic changes: metabolism, nervous system, immune response, mind builds 'images'; becomes an ensemble of actions each represented in the mind, summarized as a provoked feeling.  Attention to the feelings varies depending on the current state of the mind.  Emotive responses are generated non consciously by specific nuclei in the brain:
  • Hypothalamic nuclei
  • PAG
  • Amygdala nuclei and nucleus accumbens; each nuclei activated by particular streams of signals, from the senses or memory, enabling responses to vast numbers of sensations, objects and circumstances with drives, motivations and emotions. 


The pursuit of creativity includes explaining any biological
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
phenomenon
.  That engages three levels of thought:
  1. What is it?
  2. How is it put together?
  3. Why do the phenomena and preconditions exist?
Biologists look for proximate and ultimate cause and effect at all three levels. 

Science and humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
are complementary in this activity.  Science aims to explore all the possibilities in the universe.  The humanities explore the what, in everything conceivable to the human mind. 

Wilson notes that many people don't like thinking alone.  They prefer almost any external activity when company is not available.  And most see creativity hightened in madness even though they fear such illness. 

Other species, especially those who operate as SuperOrganisms is a wealthy autonomous entity needing and controlling the richest niches in the proximate environment, that emerges from the bundled cooperation of schematically aligned agents.   The term is based on the social insect model, used by: ants, termites, and bees; and identified by Holldobler & E.O. Wilson.  For humans it is an evolved cultural strategy used when the environment is supportive.  It depends on inter-agent signalling.  In both insects and humans it allows specialization, and encourages operations and flows that are tightly controlled, limiting waste, leveraging parallel activity, supporting coherence.  Superorganisms reflect cliodynamic flows.  A superorganism has a development and operational phase.  As additional agents are coopted into the superorganism they align, participate in supply and demand activities and so contribute to the evolutionary amplification.  Damasio notes that prokaryotes, in rich environments, can similarly operate in a symbiotic fashion expressing cultural behaviors. 
, demonstrate different aspects of creativity. 

Birth of the humanities
Hunter gatherers, living on the African savanna is the environment where hunter-gatherers primarily evolved.  Its grassland supported large herbivores that could be hunted easily across the plains.  Clumps of Acacia trees: with short trunks, and broad bows; & rocks supported places to hide from large carnivores.  Streams, especially important in times of drought, and paths add to the signals enabling orientation. 
, could hunt and gather during the day, but in the evening they returned to a shared camp where a fire kept large predators: lions, crocodiles, leopards, at a distance.  Confined to the tight space, with time to spare, the community dedicated the time to social interactions.  They knew each other, and could predict each others behaviors, so they could identify when to cooperate or compete, just like their primate cousins.  Wilson sees a wheel of cooperation & competition driving the social organization to support the
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolution
of empathy is the capability to relate to another person from their perspective.  It is implemented by spindle neurons.  It is context dependently mediated by estrogen.  It develops over time: Piaget's preoperational stage includes rudimentary empathy, Theory of mind supports the development; initially feeling someone's pain as one integrated being, then for them and eventually as them.  In adults, when someone else is hurt the anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala & insula activates projecting [scapegoating] to the vmPFC.  If the pain is physical the PAG activates and motor neurons for the area where the other person was injured.  The intertwining of the ACC amygdala & insula in adults results in attribution of fault even when there is none which can make it hard to step in and actually help.  But in seven-year-olds the activation is concrete: PAG and sensory & motor cortexes with minimal coupling to the rudimentary vmPFC.  In older children the vmPFC is coupled to limbic structures.  Ten to twelve year olds abstract empathy to classes of people.  By adolescence the vmPFC is coupled to theory of mind regions and intentional harm induces disgust via the amygdala.  Sapolsky explains adolescent boys are utilitarian and tend to accept inequality more than girls do.  But both sexes accept inequality as the way it is.  Sociopaths do not develop empathy.   and subsequently sympathy is an emotion, the desire to help those in need.  Steven Pinker suggests it may develop into a sham emotion to earn gratitide.  Sapolsky adds that it can describe someone with the power to help, but who choses not to.  Alternately it can indicate feeling sorry for someone elses pain while not understanding it, in contrast with empathy.  Or it can mean the emotionally distanced sense of feeling for someone.  Or the state of feeling their pain as if it were happening to you where it may cause such distress as to focus you onto alleviating you own distress. 


Scientists study primate troops by observation.  They note without building empathy it would be arduous and futile.  There are three neural routes activated during social interactions:
  1. Mentalizing - where goals are formed and activities planned for subsequent execution. 
  2. Empathizing - where one thinks as another to assess their motives and feelings are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
    and anticipate their future actions
  3. Mirroring - where sense mood and emotions are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
    of another, and experience the sensed emotions.  This helps with imitation of others successful strategies.  It is a gateway to sympathy; the evolution of empathy and mirroring depending on the time the individuals interact with one another.  Humans spend the most time socializing.  This gregariousness is part of the evolved driving force. 
The structure of the African savanna made tracking of prey across the open plains easy.  The controlled use of lightening induced fire required a den to come back to.  Of necessity this increased the evolved benefit of sociability, as large prey could be cooked and shared reciprocally.  The hominid gastrointestinal tract altered, end-to-end.  The high calorie intake from meat helped to support increased brain size. 

Chimpanzees have 98% same DNA (DNA), a polymer composed of a chain of deoxy ribose sugars with purine or pyrimidine side chains.  DNA naturally forms into helical pairs with the side chains stacked in the center of the helix.  It is a natural form of schematic string.  The purines and pyrimidines couple so that AT and GC pairs make up the stackable items.  A code of triplets of base pairs (enabling 64 separate items to be named) has evolved which now redundantly represents each of the 20 amino-acids that are deployed into proteins, along with triplets representing the termination sequence.  Chemical modifications and histone binding (chromatin) allow cells to represent state directly on the DNA schema.  To cope with inconsistencies in the cell wide state second messenger and evolved amplification strategies are used. 
as humans, behave according to rank, are social with high IQs: likely driven by need to coordinate to avoid ambush by leopards and lions, but they don't:
During their evenings around the campfire Kalahari hunter gatherers spend time storytelling: adventures & successful hunts; singing, dancing and performing religious ceremonies.  It is huge imaginations that make humans great. 

Language
Languages are arbitrary combinations of symbols chosen to confer meaning.  The symbols can label: entities are, according to Abbott, a class including people, families, corporations, hurricanes.  They implement abstract designs and are demarcatable by their reduced entropy relative to their components.  Rovelli notes entities are a collection of relations and events, but memory and our continuous process of anticipation, organizes the series of quantized interactions we perceive into an illusion of permanent objects flowing from past to future.  Abbott identifies two types of entity:
  1. At equilibrium entities,
  2. Autonomous entities, which can control how they are affected by outside forces;
, processes & their attributes.  Languages are the basis of society and so have become necessary for human existence.  They are the
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
substance
of intelligent thought, allowing recollection of the past and imagination of the future.  This allows a
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
path to be chosen


Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

Minds
assemble experiences and construct stories from them.  Wilson spent years on his own studying ants, going to their proximate environments.  He notes that he used an alter-ego with whom he would discuss what was happening, to keep his mind alert.  Over a lifetime studying social insect behavior, Wilson writes, he finally recognized the tribe to which all people belong: the Ju/'hoansi

Language is universal among humans.  It is partly instinctive and partly cultural is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
: the melody is the main, most salient, theme of a piece of music in the mind. 
and rhythm describes the duration of a series of notes and the way they group together. 
, emotional coloring, and tone is the sound that is heard by a listener.  It will be associated with a note in written music.  ; remains the same everywhere.  The vocabulary is learnedGrammar rules are mainly learned

Innovation
Language can make art: inventiveness of style and metaphor, aesthetic surprise, lasting pleasure it generates. 

Novels are outgrowths of campfire stories.  They include fine grained details of personalities and histories of the dysfunction at a place in time. 

Evolution in art parallels
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
organic evolution
in the manner in which they both work.  Originality and style are everything, a metamorphosis framed by an unexplored idea, which attracts imitators. 

Aesthetic surprise
Wilson explains that great art catches and holds your attention is the focusing of our mental resources onto a specific piece of information.  Attention uses valuations assigned to each potential object of thought by the basal ganglia. 
.  And it occurs across a spectrum from depictions of majesty & beauty to horror and death.  It includes a signature, an overall feeling are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
of the creative work.  The signature will have an identifying feature which acts as a sign stimulus, as used widely by animals to signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
loudly.  In great art it has the same impact on the human psyche tuned to imitate signals of the cognitive niche is Tooby & DeVore's theory that reflects a flexible competitive strategy, described by Steven Pinker, which leverages the power and flexibility of intelligence to defeat the capabilities of genetically evolved specialists focused on specific niches.  

Wilson asserts art criticism will probe far deeper if it is amplified by knowledge leveraged from science.  And this may extend its focus from humanity to the living world. 




Wilson concludes the humanities are currently suffering from being too static with their leaders: only focused on the audio visual bubble formed by our prehuman ancestors, and having little interest in why humanity evolved. 

Limitations of the humanities
Human nature is a hereditary propensity to learn certain forms of
The complexity of behavior is explored through Sapolsky developing scenarios of our best and worst behaviors across time spans, and scientific subjects including: anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, sociology.  The rich network of adaptive flows he outlines provides insights and highlight challenges for scientific research on behavior. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory builds on Sapolsky's details highlighting the strategies that evolution has captured to successfully enter niches we now occupy. 

behavior
and to avoid others. 

Wilson suggests
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolution
developed language before music and then, even later, art.  It created the traits that allowed humans to break out of Africa.  Wilson sees these pre-historic traits explored with: paleontology, anthropology, psychology, neurobiology, evolutionary biology argues that the human genome and phenotypes developed during the relatively long period when our ancestors were hunter-gatherers.  These biologists argue we can best understand ourselves by observing the remaining hunter-gatherer tribes including the Hadza. 
; but not currently through anthropocentric and history bound humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
.  He notes history is a product of cultural evolution, which studies proximate causes of:
Matt Ridley demonstrates the creative effect of man on the World. He highlights:
  • A list of preconditions resulting in
  • Additional niche capture & more free time 
  • Building a network to interconnect memes processes & tools which
  • Enabling inter-generational transfers
  • Innovations that help reduce environmental stress even as they leverage fossil fuels

trade
, migration, economics is the study of trade between humans.  Traditional Economics is based on an equilibrium model of the economic system.  Traditional Economics includes: microeconomics, and macroeconomics.  Marx developed an alternative static approach.  Limitations of the equilibrium model have resulted in the development of: Keynes's dynamic General Theory of Employment Interest & Money, and Complexity Economics.  Since trading depends on human behavior, economics has developed behavioral models including: behavioral economics. 
, ideology,
Peter Turchin describes how major pre-industrial empires developed due to effects of geographic boundaries constraining the empires and their neighbors' interactions.  Turchin shows how the asymmetries of breeding rates and resource growth rates results in dynamic cycles within cycles.  After the summary of Turchin's book complex adaptive system (CAS) theory is used to augment Turchins findings. 
war
, leadership aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  John Adair developed a leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
, fashion; reflecting the 10,000 years since Neolithic agriculture generated food surpluses. 

By leveraging the information from biology and pre-history researchers can include signals, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
and
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
phenomena
, ouside of history, supporting personal survival and reproduction and aligned with paleolithic stresses.  And they can compare humanity with other very different species.  But to date, humanities have been highly niche specific, studying the Umwelt of humans, and also have been oblivious of these constraints.  For example the humanities, reflecting human nature, are very focused on the visual and auditory senses.  That is also applicable to birds, a few insects, and a few invertebrates, but most of life also uses chemical signals, touch, electric fields and magnetic fields. 

Years of neglect
A well rounded education, that can develop acute moral judgement provides rules for identifying right from wrong.  It develops in stages with children using play to work out rules of appropriate behavior.  Kohlberg's 1950s experiments using children led him to conclude moral judgement is a cognitive process that develops in three stages.  Sapolsky raises issues with the framework: Its a model, It does not apply to other cultures, Intuition & emotion are as significant as cognition, Moral reasoning doesn't predict moral actions; and notes the capacity of the frontal cortex to regulate emotions and behavior is far more predictive.  The marshmallow test, performed on three to six year olds, actually predicted their subsequent SAT scores at high school, social success and lack of aggression, and forty years on more PFC activation during a frontal task and a lower BMI!  Jonathan Haidt argues people's moral decisions are rationalizations rather than using reasoning. 
, requires an understanding of humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
: everything conceivable; and science: everything factual and possible.  But Wilson laments that the humanities are struggling to sustain that position.  The Heart of the Matter, from the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, notes America's heroes are: billionaires, startup CEOs, national entertainers, champion atheletes; and Americans value celebrity and money.  Universities are focused on sciences. 

The humanities are starved of funding, which flows to: physical and biological sciences, math, medicine and engineering; and sponsors, and there are relatively few jobs in the arts and humanities. 

National and state budgets now classify the humanities as luxuries. 

Wilson argues that potential funding for humanities is instead directed to organized religions, which are supported by a majority of humanity, and the digital revolution which aligns well with STEM education & has generated demand for 2.5 million jobs.  Science and technology are assumed to be driving the US global economic is the study of trade between humans.  Traditional Economics is based on an equilibrium model of the economic system.  Traditional Economics includes: microeconomics, and macroeconomics.  Marx developed an alternative static approach.  Limitations of the equilibrium model have resulted in the development of: Keynes's dynamic General Theory of Employment Interest & Money, and Complexity Economics.  Since trading depends on human behavior, economics has developed behavioral models including: behavioral economics. 
and techno scientific dominance.  And Brain science is encroaching on areas traditionally studied as humanities. 

Wilson notes this neglect can be expected to induce problems since philosophy, law, history and literature preserve society's cultural values.  He concludes that educational expansion needs new growth in the humanities. 




Wilson notes the same brain processes support creativity in the humanities and sciences. 
Ultimate causes
The best art criticism includes deep intuitive wisdom.  But Wilson complains, it's subjective.  And so the insights can glance off and miss the recipient.  And the artist may be building
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
flexibility
into their creation's signature, as well as new perspectives. 

The hot house climate of experimental art and its criticism enables random development of subcultures.  The result provides a glimpse of the decision centers of the unconscious
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

mind


Wilson comments the inventions of jazz and rock arise directly from human experience.  They reflect universal genetic traits, which can be understood with evolutionary biology argues that the human genome and phenotypes developed during the relatively long period when our ancestors were hunter-gatherers.  These biologists argue we can best understand ourselves by observing the remaining hunter-gatherer tribes including the Hadza. 
.  These scientists study present day hunter gatherers, including the Ju/'hoansi of the Kalahari, who they find are intimately aware of their local environment.  By day they focus on hunting and gathering, and conversations are business like.  But in the evening, around the 'nest' campfire they tell stories, dance and sing

Wilson notes that other species also congregate around nests: social wasps, ants, bees, aphids, shrimp; and he writes that this generates society is David Sloan Wilson and subsequently Harvard's E.O. Wilson's, multi-level evolutionary selection mechanism.  It is seen to operate in humans and is explained by Tit for Tat style cooperation and prosociality.  Wilson writes group-level selection affects the traits that are interactive with groupmates, so that success of an individual's genes depends at least partially on the success of the society to which the individual belongs.  In ants, bees, wasps and termites group selection almost entirely overrides individual selection.  For humans both group and individual selection apply and can be in conflict. 
:
  1. Group pressures encourage altruistic, is the property that since kin share genes natural selection will improve the replicator's selfish goals by supporting the survival of such relatives.  Improving the chances of survival of non-kin is hard to explain with a gene preservation theory.  Why help a competitive gene?  Trivers explanation of reciprocal altruism shows the special conditions under which it can occur. 
    long term roles, which increase the chance of survival and reproduction. 
  2. High levels of cooperation of members of the group
There is a resulting premium placed on social intelligence.  This leverages spoken language, which can generate a great signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
: cheap, fast to make and fade, turns corners, low cost to
Plans change in complex adaptive systems (CAS) due to the action of genetic operations such as mutation, splitting and recombination.  The nature of the operations is described. 
mutate
and replicate is Richard Dawkin's name for the genotype since it has the evolutionary goal of surviving long enough to reproduce its schematic plan effectively.  The action of genetic operators means that the results of successful reproduction may be different to the parental genotypes and phenotypes (Dawkin's vehicle). 
; the capacity and driving impetus being
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
genetically
preserved. 

Within groups,
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
with better language capabilities had higher survival rates: more effective at forming agreements and
Matt Ridley demonstrates the creative effect of man on the World. He highlights:
  • A list of preconditions resulting in
  • Additional niche capture & more free time 
  • Building a network to interconnect memes processes & tools which
  • Enabling inter-generational transfers
  • Innovations that help reduce environmental stress even as they leverage fossil fuels

developing trade


Bedrock
Humanity's social world has Paleolithic emotions are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
, mediaeval institutions, and God like technologies:
  • Physiological basis of senses and emotions are from apes.  
  • Creative arts, language, dance, song, painting; found 60,000 years ago at the African breakout.  
  • The rest has changed dramatically, with science and technology impacts doubling every 10 to 20 years. 
The humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
have stuck with studying people.  But this has not identified a clear meaning or purpose to life. 

Humanity has succeeded in dominating the earth, but is now constrained by competition between nations, organized religions and other collectives.  And Wilson laments we are collectively blind to the common good of life and planet.  But he argues the humanities are well placed to show us how to correct these failures, if they leverage the additional capabilities and insights provided by science and technology.  They can partner with science in forming new bedrock from human intellect by:
Wilson sees a common thread of evolution running through every autonomous entity are entities which:
  • Are far from equilibrium
  • Consume and save low entropy choosing when to use it
  • Can use accessible low entropy to maintain themselves
.  So he laments a general lack of understanding of how evolution works which he attributes to limited teaching of evolutionary theory in general education.  He argues it is a huge barrier to effective integration of humanities and science, and yet he asserts
Richard Dawkin's explores how nature has created implementations of designs, without any need for planning or design, through the accumulation of small advantageous changes. 
evolutionary theory
is relatively straight forward.  Wilson provides an outline:

Breakthrough
Wilson frames human evolution:
  • Over 98% of species that ever lived have vanished
  • Chimps and humans split 6 million years ago. 
  • Three australopithecine species had coexisted in the African homeland.  One of the lines, leading to current humans, increased its consumption of meat.  
  • Two million years ago Homo erectus: gained control of fire, campsites, where fire was used in cooking
Homo habilis, an ancestor of Homo erectus, shows signs of increased brain size which allowed for development of memory in the brain includes functionally different types: Declarative, or explicit, (episodic and semantic), Implicit, Procedural, Spatial, Temporal, Verbal; Hebb suggested that glutamate receptive neurons learn by (NMDA channel based) synaptic strengthening: short term memory.  This was shown to happen for explicit memory formation in the hippocampus.  This strengthening is sustained by subsequent LTP.  The non-real-time learning and planning processes operate through consciousness using the working memory structures, and then via sleep, the salient ones are consolidated while the rest are destroyed and garbage collected.   allowing internal story telling.  That supported the
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emergence
of true language.  Language was a catalyst, an infrastructure amplifier.  , which resulted in unprecedented creativity and the inception of human culture is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 


Wilson asserts humanity is still evolving, as it integrates and homogenizes, driven by the
This page reviews the strategy of setting up an arms race.  At its core this strategy depends on being able to alter, or take advantage of an alteration in, the genome or equivalent.  The situation is illustrated with examples from biology, high tech and politics. 
amplifier
of gene culture coevolution

Genetic culture
The shift in diet to cooked meat involved a hereditary makeover of: anatomy, physiology, and behavior:
This co-evolutionary process is fundamental to the unity of science and the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
.  Wilson notes species have characteristic lifespans.  In the past deadly external threats resulted in natural selection front loading vigor and reproductive activity.  Now with the reduced impact of external mortality factors on selection Wilson expects an overall population-level hereditary shift, with onset of menopause, and average age of mortality and reproduction, to rise. 

Human nature
The human condition reflects:
Wilson stresses that the Baldwin effect suggests learning can guide evolution.  While some aspects of the organism are setup directly by genes others are left to be set through learning.  Trial and error is used to tune the learned settings.  Learning can allow a configuration that natural selection is highly unlikely to generate and that is tuned to the proximate environment, to be found by iterative testing.  Natural selection can retain the schematic structures that specify the learning infrastructure and the most successful aspects set directly evolving towards a desired outcome.  The result looks Lamarckian. 
is essential to gene-culture coevolution.  It is the reason advantageous learned behaviors increase in frequency in the
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
schematic
pool.  He notes the success of innate signals to set ones position in the hierarchy: Monarchs gaze down, calm and impassive, Experts in dominant status staying close to the department head, with an inquisitorial gaze, posture of command, talking as if for the group; leveraged by socially adept chimps and humans. 

The humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
have yet to come to grips with the chimeric nature of our
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

minds
and creativity:


We are
E. O. Wilson reviews the effect of man on the natural world to date and explains how the two systems can coexist most effectively. 
destroying the natural world at an accelerating rate
.  But nature is a source of love and fear for humanity.  Wilson wishes we would pause to consider why such a relation exists.  He asserts such self-understanding requires the blending of science and the humanities

Why nature is mother
All animals are
Antonio Damasio argues that ancient & fundamental homeostatic processes, built into behaviors and updated by evolution have resulted in the emergence of  nervous systems and feelings.  These feelings, representing the state of the viscera, and represented with general systems supporting enteric operation, are later ubiquitously integrated into the 'images' built by the minds of higher animals including humans. 

Damasio highlights the separate development of the body frame in the building of minds. 

Damasio explains that this integration of feelings by minds supports the development of subjectivity and consciousness.  His chain of emergence suggests the 'order of things.'  He stresses the end-to-end integration of the organism which undermines dualism.  And he reviews Chalmers hard problem of consciousness. 

Damasio reviews the emergence of cultures and sees feelings, integrated with reason, as the judges of the cultural creative process, linking culture to homeostasis.  He sees cultures as supporting the development of tools to improve our lives.  But the results of the creative process have added stresses to our lives. 

Following our summary of his arguments RSS frames his arguments from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  Each of the [super]organisms discussed is a CAS reflecting the theory of such systems:
  • Damasio's proposals about homeostasis routed signalling, aligns well with CAS theory. 
  • Damasio's ideas on cultural stresses are elaborated by CAS examples. 

motivated
to seek their ideal environment. 

We still reflect hunter gatherer adaptations in evolutionary biology is a trait that increased the number of surviving offspring in an organism's ancestral lineage.  In Deacon's conception of evolution an adaptation is the realization of a set of constraints on candidate mechanisms, and so long as these constraints are maintained, other features are arbitrary. 
to the African savanna is the environment where hunter-gatherers primarily evolved.  Its grassland supported large herbivores that could be hunted easily across the plains.  Clumps of Acacia trees: with short trunks, and broad bows; & rocks supported places to hide from large carnivores.  Streams, especially important in times of drought, and paths add to the signals enabling orientation. 
.  We have migrated to cities but
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolution
links us to the home location is Tooby & DeVore's theory that reflects a flexible competitive strategy, described by Steven Pinker, which leverages the power and flexibility of intelligence to defeat the capabilities of genetically evolved specialists focused on specific niches.  , so we seek and recreate: elevated land next to a lake or river, looking out over savanna, with a few trees and copses, forest or a land ridge rising in the distance. 

Artists avoid representing northern primordial forests.  Instead they include characteristics of savanna.  We prefer trees that look like acacias, with short trunks, modest height, broad canopies, attributes which allowed us to escape from lions, and provided a good lookout poste. 

Poet naturalists bring biodiversity alive to us in their words.  He wishes they explored more natural ecosystems. 

The hunter's trance
Wilson uses Carl von Essen's essay, Hunter's Trance, to highlight the heightened feelings are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
we still experience when hunting and near the prey:
From personal experience Wilson notes a similar impact of a naturalist's perception of a search image: that combination of traits of a species of plant or animal that allows a tracker to find it, picked out of the camouflage of all the other objects

Wilson sees two archetypes: geographical exploration and scientific discovery; that call to the creative arts to pay closer attention to the natural world.  Wilson notes his visionary meeting with Vladimir Nabokov: subsequently a great author and then a naturalist studying butterflies; sharing the excitement of seeking some remote extraordinary natural discovery. 

Gardens
Wilson describes the high value placed on flowers and gardens in antiquity, 13,700 years ago, and now.  It is quite logical - flowers are a fragrant signal of fertility, inducing all of us to feel young and nubile.  And he notes their
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolution
in a symbiotic is a long term situation between two, or more, different agents where the resources of both are shared for mutual benefit.  Some of the relationships have built remarkable dependencies: Tremblaya's partnership with citrus mealybugs and bacterial DNA residing in the mealybug's genome, Aphids with species of secondary symbiont bacteria deployed sexually from a male aphid sperm reservoir and propagated asexually by female aphids only while their local diet induces a dependency.  If the power relations and opportunities change for the participants then they will adapt and the situation may transform into separation, predation or parasitism. 
partnership between plants and insects.  Artists have leveraged the representation of flowers to associate beauty, health and status is a publically accepted, signal that one possesses assets: wealth, beauty, talent, expertise, access & trust of powerful people; to be able to help others. 
with their human subjects. 

Gardens are a key instrument of agriculture, which allowed the emergence of civilizations from Paleolithic bands. 

Gardens have a restorative and healing effect, suppressing stressors is a multi-faceted condition reflecting high cortisol levels.  Dr. Robert Sapolsky's studies of baboons indicate that stress helps build readiness for fight or flight.  As these actions occur the levels of cortisol return to the baseline rate.  A stressor is anything that disrupts the regular homeostatic balance.  The stress response is the array of neural and endocrine changes that occur to respond effectively to the crisis and reestablish homeostasis. 
  • The short term response to the stressor
    • activates the amygdala which: Stimulates the brain stem resulting in inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system and activation of the sympathetic nervous system with the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine deployed around the body, Activates the PVN which generates a cascade resulting in glucocorticoid secretion to: get energy to the muscles with increased blood pressure for a powerful response.  The brain's acuity and cognition are stimulated.  The immune system is stimulated with beta-endorphin and repair activities curtail.  But when the stressor is
  • long term: loneliness, debt; and no action is necessary, or possible, long term damage ensues.  Damage from such stress may only occur in specific situations: Nuclear families coping with parents moving in.  Sustained stress provides an evolved amplifier of a position of dominance and status.  It is a strategy in female aggression used to limit reproductive competition.  Sustained stress:
    • Stops the frontal cortex from ensuring we do the harder thing, instead substituting amplification of the individual's propensity for risk-taking and impairing risk assessment! 
    • Activates the integration between the thalamus and amygdala. 
      • Acts differently on the amygdala in comparison to the frontal cortex and hippocampus: Stress strengthens the integration between the Amygdala and the hippocampus, making the hippocampus fearful. 
      • BLA & BNST respond with increased BDNF levels and expanded dendrites persistently increasing anxiety and fear conditioning. 
    • Makes it easier to learn a fear association and to consolidate it into long-term memory.  Sustained stress makes it harder to unlearn fear by making the prefrontal cortex inhibit the BLA from learning to break the fear association and weakening the prefrontal cortex's hold over the amygdala.  And glucocorticoids decrease activation of the medial prefrontal cortex during processing of emotional faces.  Accuracy of assessing emotions from faces suffers.  A terrified rat generating lots of glucocorticoids will cause dendrites in the hippocampus to atrophy but when it generates the same amount from excitement of running on a wheel the dendrites expand.  The activation of the amygdala seems to determine how the hippocampus responds. 
    • Depletes the nucleus accumbens of dopamine biasing rats toward social subordination and biasing humans toward depression. 
    • Disrupts working memory by amplifying norepinephrine signalling in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala to prefrontal cortex signalling until they become destructive.  It also desynchronizes activation in different frontal lobe regions impacting shifting of attention.  
    • Increases the risk of autoimmune disease (Jan 2017) 
  • During depression, stress inhibits dopamine signalling.  
  • Strategies for stress reduction include: Mindfulness. 
when people view them. 

Wilson laments two unintentional errors executed by amateur gardeners:
  1. Obsessed with lawns - which are alien monocultures that consume huge amounts of water
  2. Select non-indigenous plants and trees that undermine the performance of the proximate ecosystem. 
Unfortunately these choices hurt the insects that support the operation of the plants and act as food for the birds which normally naturally control insect pests.  Both the local plants and birds suffer as the insects struggle to utilize the foreign plant species. 



Wilson looks carefully at metaphors & archetypes.  From this examination he concludes science & humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
can be blended

Metaphors
Wilson judges metaphors the building blocks of great poetry and prose.  They civilized us, allowing the invention of new word and word combinations with alternative and new meanings.  They:
Wilson notes that words are arbitrary in origin, but metaphors are not: falling into categories of innate human response.  Humans use features of physical nature for metaphors.  The meaning depends on a few of their traits that affect our senses and emotions.  Predictable metaphors are joined to create archetypes

Archetypes
Wilson suggests "archetypes are part of a deep history, obedient to instinctive genetic biases acquired through
This page reviews the implications of selection, variation and heredity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
evolution
."  Some of these reflect our ancestors of millions of years ago.  Others resulted from when humans were radiating out from Africa tens of thousands of years ago.  Fear is an emotion which prepares the body for time sensitive action: Blood is sent to the muscles from the gut and skin, Adrenalin is released stimulating: Fuel to be released from the liver, Blood is encouraged to clot, and Face is wide-eyed and fearful.  The short-term high priority goal, experienced as a sense of urgency, is to flee, fight or deflect the danger.  There are both 'innate' - really high priority learning - which are mediated by the central amydala and learned fears which are mediated by the BLA which learns to fear a stimulus and then signals the central amygdala. 
of snakes, spiders and other ancient dangers are archetypes generated from genetically driven instincts. 

Wilson reviews the archetypes in great films:
  • The hero
  • The tragic hero
  • The monster
  • The quest
  • The pair bond
  • Other worlds
Wilson concludes technical knowledge and fictive genius combined can provide unlimited enduring material for a blend of science and the creative arts.  Wilson asserts that instinctive residues have affected language and culture expressed as drama by clustering into themes that evoke archetypes.  Wilson sees the same effect active in creativity.  Wilson suggests this can be confirmed by answering two questions: What is human nature? Why is there a human nature in the first place?

Most distant island
Wilson loves small distant islands, calling for him to travel to them, observe and explore.  Their unique resident life forms demonstrate stability between arrivals, births and deaths.  Asking if the island existed for us if it had not been seen Wilson drives home the point that without the symbolic representations created by art and music, religion, philosophy and history we would be similarly less enlightened about our situation. 

Irony: a victory of the mind
Irony evolved as an emotional trait, rhetorical in nature, unique to humanity.  It is a device in speech and literature in which the properties of a process or an entity are, according to Abbott, a class including people, families, corporations, hurricanes.  They implement abstract designs and are demarcatable by their reduced entropy relative to their components.  Rovelli notes entities are a collection of relations and events, but memory and our continuous process of anticipation, organizes the series of quantized interactions we perceive into an illusion of permanent objects flowing from past to future.  Abbott identifies two types of entity:
  1. At equilibrium entities,
  2. Autonomous entities, which can control how they are affected by outside forces;
are described by their exact opposite.  Irony creates a new level of meaning.  It amuses, emphasizes, and softens the brutality of real life.  While anger is an emotion which protects a person who has been cheated by a supposed friend.  When the exploitation of the altruism is discovered, Steven Pinker explains, the result is a drive for moralistic aggression to hurt the cheater.  , jealousy is an emotion driven by the large investment by parents in their children's development combined with a human sexual asymmetry: fertilization occurs inside the female's body, so a male can't be sure it is supporting its own ofspring. 
and retribution are ancient emotions are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
available to our ancestors tens of millions of years ago, irony is different, being shaped by cultural evolution in social environments created by language.  To explain irony will need leadership aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  John Adair developed a leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
by the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
with biology providing assistance. 

Third enlightenment
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
Phenomena
addressed by scientific method are processed by the human
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

mind
.  The act of discovery is a human endeavor.  Wilson concludes the relationship between science and the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
is fully reciprocal.  And all of it has a physical basis ultimately explainable by the scientific method.  And the humanities provide more reach. 

The European Enlightenment divided knowledge into three branches of learning: natural sciences, social sciences, and humanities.  The social sciences have split into two, one fusing with natural sciences, while the other aligned with the humanities.  Wilson wants closer bonds between these parts, seeing opportunities for expanded awareness.  Gossip and storytelling are Darwinian phenomena.  In partnership humanities can gain roots and look more broadly.  At the same time scientists have become journeymen, forced to focus in great depth on discovery in a narrow isolated field after a long apprenticeship, as the amount of scientific knowledge increases exponentially. 

Wilson sees opportunity to develop a third enlightenment:
Wilson presents a challenge for philosophy.  To understand:
Scientists and humanities scholars can become leaders in this new philosophy, to produce this third enlightenment. 




This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory
provides a framework for understanding the
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emergence
of
Consciousness is no longer mysterious.  In this page we use complex adaptive system (CAS) theory to describe the high-level architecture of consciousness, linking sensory networks, low level feelings and genetically conserved and deployed neural structures into a high level scheduler.  Consciousness is evolution's solution to the complex problems of effective, emergent, multi-cellular perception based strategy.  Constrained by emergence and needing to avoid the epistemological problem of starting with a blank slate with every birth, evolution was limited in its options. 

We explain how survival value allows evolution to leverage available tools: sensors, agent relative position, models, perception & representation; to solve the problem of mobile agents responding effectively to their own state and proximate environment.  Evolution did this by providing a genetically constructed framework that can develop into a conscious CAS. 

And we discuss the implications with regard to artificial intelligence, sentient robots, augmented intelligence, and aspects of philosophy. 
consciousness
and culture is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
.   Wilson sees biology as a bridge for philosophers between science and the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
, to develop the third enlightenment RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio notes that
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS theory
should help here. 

Wilson notes that humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors. 
have focused completely on human cultureAbbott
Russ Abbott explores the impact on science of epiphenomena and the emergence of agents. 
explains
how each
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Physical forces and constraints follow the rules of complexity.  They generate phenomena and support the indirect emergence of epiphenomena.  Flows of epiphenomena interact in events which support the emergence of equilibrium and autonomous entities.  Autonomous entities enable evolution to operate broadening the adjacent possible.  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
has its own functionalist epiphenomena base.  But this does not restrict the integration of lower level CAS to the gathering theory and practice describing the new autonomous entity are entities which:
  • Are far from equilibrium
  • Consume and save low entropy choosing when to use it
  • Can use accessible low entropy to maintain themselves


The origin of humanities is explored in Stephen Greenblatt's
An epistatic meme suppressed for a thousand years reemerges during the enlightenment. 
It was a poem encapsulating the ideas of Epicurus rediscovered by a humanist book hunter. 
Greenblatt describes the process of suppression and reemergence.  He argues that the rediscovery was the foundation of the modern world. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the memetic mechanisms are discussed. 

The Swerve


The use of gatherings to share stories was supported by AT&T's Mervin Kelly in the architectural layout of the Murray Hill laboratory

Rovelli notes how our grammatical models assume past, present and future, which does not match the underlying physical phenomena

Great art signatures are exemplified by the innovative is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
delivery of Leonardo's painting techniques, deployed
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
iteratively
, to create visual illusions of three dimensional hands and the smiling mouth of the Mona Lisa, discussed by Walter Isaacson

Good signals, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
should be hard to fake.  So evolution ensures human speech is bound, although indirectly, to emotional stimuli

Beinhocker asserts that language is a catalyst of physical technologies

Sapolsky
The complexity of behavior is explored through Sapolsky developing scenarios of our best and worst behaviors across time spans, and scientific subjects including: anthropology, psychology, neuroscience, sociology.  The rich network of adaptive flows he outlines provides insights and highlight challenges for scientific research on behavior. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) theory builds on Sapolsky's details highlighting the strategies that evolution has captured to successfully enter niches we now occupy. 

discusses behavior
and compares human and animal psychology:
Metaphor is seen as import by Pinker and Sapolsky


Wilson is excited for philosophy to explore:

Wilson's reflective and insightful book describes his view that creativity must be seen through the impact of socializing around evening campfires, helping to explain the unusual cultural impact of the human
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS





























































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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
| Design |
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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