Bob's global technology marvel
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Bob's global technology marvel

Summary
Bob Iger writes about his leadership strategies based on his life experiences, which describes his immediate family, upbringing, development is a phase during the operation of a CAS agent.  It allows for schematic strategies to be iteratively blended with environmental signals to solve the logistical issues of migrating newly built and transformed sub-agents.  That is needed to achieve the adult configuration of the agent and optimize it for the proximate environment.  Smiley includes examples of the developmental phase agents required in an emergent CAS.  In situations where parents invest in the growth and memetic learning of their offspring the schematic grab bag can support optimizations to develop models, structures and actions to construct an adept adult.  In humans, adolescence leverages neural plasticity, elder sibling advice and adult coaching to help prepare the deploying neuronal network and body to successfully compete. 
as a weatherman, production studio supervisor, divisional: ABC Television, Disney Media - where he had the challenge of integrating a centralized and a distributed corporate culture; and enterprise leader at ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
, Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
and Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
: COO, and CEO

He describes the struggle Disney CEO Eisner had with giving Iger the COO role, explaining how he learned to approach this challenge.  When the board concluded Disney was floundering and forced out Eisner, Iger had to convince them he was the solution to their dilemma

Iger was chosen as the next CEO by the board but also had to convince Roy Disney, and signal the world that he could revitalize the company and partner with Steve Jobs was an innovative entrepreneur who integrated art and culture with engineering, and is responsible for: the strong sexual selection force of the: Macintosh, iPod, iPad and iPhone; and their dedicated fan base.  He helped John Lasseter and Ed Catmull turn Pixar into a digital animation powerhouse and became Disney's largest shareholder when he and Robert Iger integrated Disney and Pixar.  He cofounded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak where Wozniak designed a particularly simple microprocessor based computer, the Apple 1 and Jobs made it elegant.  Struck by the relative simplicity and ease of use of PARC's Alto, Jobs and Wozniak began building the Lisa.  But Jobs decided it was flawed and took a small group aside to build the Macintosh which the whole team were happy to sign their names on the inside.  Born February 24th 1955, Steve's birth mother Joanne Schieble was forced by her father to have the boy adopted rather than allow her to marry his Muslim Syrian birth father, Abdulfattah Jandali, the last of nine children of a hugely wealthy trader, Walter Isaacson explains.  The baby was adopted by Paul Reinhold Jobs, a highly practical mechanic and a mild kind father, and Clara Hagopian, also sweet-humored, and when Steve was two they adopted Patty.  The Jobs lived in an Eichler (a design inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright), in Mountain View, California, which had a strong influence on Steve, as he explained to Isaacson, "Eichler did a great thing.  His houses were smart and cheap and good.  They brought clean design and simple taste to lower income people.  They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors.  You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids."  Steve Jobs knew early on that he was adopted, which pained him supporting development of his Challenger personality type.  It was also clear to Steve that he was unlike his adopted parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, who stressed to him that they picked him specifically and that he was special.  They tolerated Steve's high risk activities and ensured he was safe when problems occurred.  Paul Jobs impressed Steve as a child, with his valuing quality workmanship, and his practical capabilities.  Paul could repair any car and Steve became interested in the electronics aspects.  He was helped by neighbors who were electrical engineers: Larry Lang; the geographic cluster that formed around Hewlett Packard and Intel.  And he then joined a neighborhood electronics club where he was introduced to Steve Wozniak.  But the young Steve Jobs was shocked when he discovered his father did not correctly understand some aspects of the world, and Steve realized he was much more intelligent than his parents Paul and Clara.  With their support he followed his curiosity and resisted any attempt to stop him.  His powerful drive made his parents, teachers, local business leaders: Bill Hewlett, Nolan Bushnell; and coaches go along.  At Reed College he pushed to attend courses he was interested in: calligraphy; rather than follow the syllabus, and they let him.  They even allowed him to continue when he stopped his parents from paying more tuition.  His stressed individualist continually sought out gurus: Shunryu Suzuki, Neem Karoli Baba; and visionaries who might help Steve understand who he really was.  Jobs became ill with pancreatic cancer which metastasized to his liver.  He died on October 5th 2011 and was buried in Palo Alto, California, after a small funeral. 
.  Jobs was a catalyst, an infrastructure amplifier. 
in Iger's acquisition of Marvel, and Lucas Film, and he became a friend and advisor who died too young. 

Iger had to respond to the disruption of Disney's mainline businesses.  He transformed Disney's loose aggregate of businesses into a platform based on BAMTech's streaming media platform which supported the delivery of emotionally charged content direct to the consumer. 

Rupert Murdoch agreed with Iger's response to the disruptive environment and decided to sell Fox to Disney, but there were complications

Following our summary of his main points, RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio places Iger's creations within the phalanx of global forces buffeting Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
using the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS)
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can illuminate and clarify complex situations and be applied flexibly.  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
theory

 
The Ride of a Lifetime
In Bob Iger's book 'The Ride of a Lifetime', he recalls chronologically the key leadership now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
lessons and experiences in his life. 

Prologue
Iger first presents a complex scene that he had to lead Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
through:

Learning

3 Starting at the Bottom
Iger links his leadership now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
traits to his childhood.  He sees his father: brilliant, trumpet player is a complex emergent capability supported by sexual selection and generating pleasure.  It transforms the sensing of epiphenomena: Contour, Rhythm, Tempo, Timbre; to induce salient representations: Harmony, Key, Loudness, Melody, Meter, Pitch, and perceptions: Reverberation - echo; which allow musicians: Elton John, Elvis Presley; to show their fitness: superior coordination, creativity, adolescent leadership, stamina; true for birds and humans.  Levitin showed that listening to music causes a cascade of brain regions to become activated in a particular order: auditory cortex, frontal regions, such as BA44 and BA47, and finally the mesolimbic system, culminating in the nucleus accumbens.  And he found the cerebellum and basal ganglia were active throughout the session.  He argues music mimics some of the features of language and conveys some of the same emotions.  The brain regions pulse with the beat and predict the next one.  As the music is heard it is modeled and generates dopamine rewards for matching each beat and noting creative jokes in the rhythm.  The cerebellum finds pleasure in adjusting itself to stay synchronized. 
, complicated, bipolar also termed manic-depression is an episodic developmental disorder beginning in late adolescence, which can stimulate great creativity during the manic phase and suicide in the depressive phase.  Vincent van Gough suffered from depression for much of his adult life, and killed himself at thirty seven.  He produced three hundred of his greatest art works, using color to convey mood, while struggling with psychotic depression and mania in the last two years of his life.  Only the first manic phase requires a significant positive or negative stressful situation.  Type I bipolar includes more manic situations which may include psychosis.  Type II does not include psychosis.  Some people suffer 'mixed state' where mania and depression occur at the same time.  Sleep deprivation activates the amygdala and can induce mania in some people with bipolar disorder.  It affects 3 million Americans.  The amygdala is more active in people with bipolar disorder.  Franz Kallman found identical twins are likely (70% chance) to share the disorder.  Swedish researchers studying thousands of families in 2009 showed a strong hereditary link between bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, which was corroborated in 2012.  Genetic analysis of 2.3 million different regions of DNA of 9,747 people with bipolar disorder and 14,278 comparable people without, found five regions that appear connected with bipolar disorder.  Gene ADCY2, was identified, supports production of an enzyme facilitating neural signalling, and correlates with observed impairment of communication in certain brain regions in bipolar disorder.  GWAS implicate ANK3 and CACNA1C SNPs in bipolar disorder.  And de Novo mutations increase the risk.  Lithium limits the extremes of the mood swings in some patients but has side effects.  Anti-psychotic medications are prescribed.   - emotionally unpredictable, out at work all day, always felt are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
he was a failure; as a major influence, making his son curious about the world and pushing Bob to spend his time
The productivity of complex adaptive system (CAS) is reviewed highlighting the most significant variables: access to raw materials, agency based leverage of additional wage laborers/consumers to build a superOrganism during cliodynamic up-cycles, wealth amplifying infrastructure build-out, trading network time capture offset by instability of amplifier driven bubbles requiring strategic management and extended phenotypic alignment and disruption; when they expand markets for goods & services.  The CAS and classical economic approaches are compared.  Important CAS aspects are highlighted:
  • CAS reflect the history of all the events of the network of agents and their environment 
    • The relevant economic history is reviewed demonstrating the contribution of power, politics, war...
  • Chemical structures capture and preserve important recipes that allow agents to increase search/operational effectiveness and wealth & the system to be robust
  • Environment matched to system strategy: superOrganism and beetle
  • Cliodynamic models of historical agent networks allows a realistic assessment of productivity over a full network cycle 
    • The models must be matched to the proximate environment 
  • Internal failures of the agent network
  • Existential threats to the agent network 
Human agents must dedicate: focus, time, coherence and skills; to productively generate wealth.  And they could do much more - learning to develop and use formal schematic plans during their education, and using the skill when participating in a cultural superOrganism. 

CAS level productivity improvements are due to:
  • Collective solidarity ensures evolved amplifiers are fully expressed
  • Valuable schematically defined, emergent actions must be accessible to resource controlling and allocating schemata and their agents
  • Meta ideas that can be reused and recombined 
  • Distribution of these ideas allow parallel searching 
  • Trading to gain time
  • Isolated agents can be integrated into the current network during each growth phase, but cliodynamic assessments show agents are dropped again from the network during the decline phase of the cycle 
  • Network effects and leverage of power drive productivity improvements. 
Human agent level productivity
  • Agent level productivity improvements of significance
    • More time: Increased light, reduced moving & travelling, quicker & better eating, reduced rework, motivated & effective 
    • Broader utilization with adoption of standards & undermining of monopoly constraints
    • Weapons & armor
    • Power available: Driving flows & actions in required direction
    • Iterative theory & practice
    • Infrastructure & tools: catalytic reduction in cost of repeated operations
  • Agent level productivity improvements of limited effect
productively
:
Reading and writing present a conundrum.  The reader's brain contains neural networks tuned to reading.  With imaging a written word can be followed as it progresses from the retina through a functional chain that asks: Are these letters? What do they look like? Are they a word? What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? What does it mean?  Dehaene explains the importance of education in tuning the brain's networks for reading as well as good strategies for teaching reading and countering dyslexia.  But he notes the reading networks developed far too recently to have directly evolved.  And Dehaene asks why humans are unique in developing reading and culture. 

He explains the cultural engineering that shaped writing to human vision and the exaptations and neuronal structures that enable and constrain reading and culture. 

Dehaene's arguments show how cellular, whole animal and cultural complex adaptive system (CAS) are related.  We review his explanations in CAS terms and use his insights to link cultural CAS that emerged based on reading and writing with other levels of CAS from which they emerge. 

reading
, homework, fixing things for his mother; leaving Bob feeling are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
it was his job to be the steady center of the family.  His mother was a home maker, his sister three years younger.  Both his parents worried but Bob was an optimist. 

Since he was 15 Iger dreamed of being a network news anchorman.  But a year of performing in obscurity as a weatherman and feature news reporter on cable TV in Ithaca encouraged him to change course.  A lucky contact got him a job in network television production at ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
in New York as a studio supervisor.  Television production has demanding hours and extreme workloads perfectly suiting Iger's work ethic and habit of waking at 4.15 am.  He uses the early hours to let his
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter-gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

mind
wander in Buckner's fMRI based analysis, supports using past experiences to plan for the future, navigate social interactions and maximize the utility of moments when attention is not focused on external events.  It includes the: Medial prefrontal cortex, Medial temporal cortex, Posterior cingulate cortex.  It is disrupted in autism, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease.  It becomes quiet under the influence of psychedelics that bind to the serotonin receptor.   creativelyHe would be angered is an emotion which protects a person who has been cheated by a supposed friend.  When the exploitation of the altruism is discovered, Steven Pinker explains, the result is a drive for moralistic aggression to hurt the cheater.  Anger is mostly experienced as a rapid wave that then quickly dissipates.  When it is repressed, for example by a strong moral sense (superego), it can sustain, inducing long term stress. 
by workplace abuse or corruption, and was almost pushed out of ABC when he would not comply.  But he found a fortuitous refuge at ABC Sports. 

Bob got to work on The Main Event where he had the chance to meet Frank Sinatra, see him perform and how Sinatra built rapport with the production team.  It was also a chance to see master story teller, Roone Arledge, and his carefully selected production experts, work.  Having watched the final rehearsal, Roone decided to scrap and rework everything.  He refused to accept "good enough."  Iger saw the frustration of the team having to make all the last minute changes but he also observed the broadcast show was a far higher caliber emotional are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this, base emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Pinker notes a set of group selected emotions which he classes as: other-condemning, other-praising, other-suffering and self-conscious emotions.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Contempt, Disgust, Embarrassment, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Moral awe, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
event than the rehearsal due to Roone's changes.  Over
Carlo Rovelli resolves the paradox of time. 
Rovelli initially explains that low level physics does not include time:
  • A present that is common throughout the universe does not exist
  • Events are only partially ordered.  The present is localized
  • The difference between past and future is not foundational.  It occurs because of state that through our blurring appears particular to us
  • Time passes at different speeds dependent on where we are and how fast we travel
  • Time's rhythms are due to the gravitational field
  • Our quantized physics shows neither space nor time, just processes transforming physical variables. 
  • Fundamentally there is no time.  The basic equations evolve together with events, not things 
Then he explains how in a physical world without time its perception can emerge:
  • Our familiar time emerges
    • Our interaction with the world is partial, blurred, quantum indeterminate
    • The ignorance determines the existence of thermal time and entropy that quantifies our uncertainty
    • Directionality of time is real but perspectival.  The entropy of the world in relation to us increases with our thermal time.  The growth of entropy distinguishes past from future: resulting in traces and memories
    • Each human is a unified being because: we reflect the world, we formed an image of a unified entity by interacting with our kind, and because of the perspective of memory
    • The variable time: is one of the variables of the gravitational field.  With our scale we don't register quantum fluctuations, making space-time appear determined.  At our speed we don't perceive differences in time of different clocks, so we experience a single time: universal, uniform, ordered; which is helpful to our decisions

time
, Iger learned this was Arledge's exceptional value. 

Roone ran ABC sports, and made it one of the company's most profitable divisions by:
23 Betting on Talent
Leonard Goldenson, founder, chairman and CEO is chief executive officer. 
of ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
sold the company to Capital Cities Communications was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
in 1985, just after Iger had become vice president of ABC Sports.  Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
President and CEO Tom Murphy and Dan Burke had grown their local TV and Radio business through careful constraints on costs and a series of acquisitions, and with $3.5 billion from Warren Buffett they purchased ABC which was four times their size and a national broadcaster with a Hollywood studio. 

Iger recalls the ABC executives looking down on Tom and Dan, but he later realized they were exceptional managers who focused on the job and not the glitz.  But they lacked experience in managing world-class executive talent such as Roone Arledge who was by then leading the Sports and News divisions.  Arledge had brought in his high-profile anchors: Peter Jennings, Barbara Walters, Ted Koppel, Diane Sawyer; and created: 20/20, World News Tonight, Nightline; and applied his competitive spirit and visual flair to transform News into another success.  Roone acted aloof, criticized Tom and Dan, disregarded their policies on expense controls.  But they stripped away the profligate spending that ABC had allowed.  They saw a threat from low margin competitors, from cable networking.  And they allowed Roone to spend when it provided a clear benefit, paying to attract Diane Sawyer from CBS and David Brinkley from NBC. 

Tom and Dan told Arledge he could only run one division and he chose News, but asked to produce one last Olympics.  Iger hoped he might be made head of Sports but instead they brought in Dennis Swanson who had run some local TV stations for ABC.  Some executives from Sports left in protest and Bob was going to follow them out.  But Dennis asked him to be senior vice president for programming, so he stayed.  Iger found that Swanson was a talented manager: amiable, funny, infectious energy and optimism, and exceptionally, he knew what he didn't know; he wouldn't bluff but would ask for help from his team.  And Dennis never put himself ahead of anyone else, because of who he was and because this aligned with Tom and Dan's corporate culture.  In dealing with Tom and Dan, Iger realized they: displayed exceptional integrity, were forthright and honest with everyone even while they were remarkably shrewd businessmen; which built loyalty in their team. 

Iger explained the Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
business strategy: constrain costs, hire smart decent hardworking people, decentralize decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
, but offer necessary support and be accessible; providing the executive team with clear priorities and the opportunity to focus

The 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics provided Roone with another event to transform into a daily spectacle.  Iger was there to ensure everything was ready for Roone to create.  And Tom and Dan hosted the Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
directors who came to watch.  But strong Chinook winds intervened to decimate the course causing the delay of event after event.  Iger's team had to find material for Roone to fill the airtime.  Iger worked hard to remain optimistic and calm as his team searched for content, and the improvisation worked.  Shortly afterwards Tom and Dan told Bob they were impressed with how he worked under pressure and that some things might be opening up.  First, they made him executive vice president of ABC Television, but they told him they had bigger plans for him.  They brought him into their inner circle.  They valued ability more than experience and believed in putting people in challenging roles and trusting that things would work out.  Tom and Dan had a problem with Brandon Stoddard who ran ABC entertainment but would not fit into their corporate culture.  So they fired him and having gained agreement of one of their experienced team to provide support they gave Iger the job.  It meant moving the family to Los Angeles and his then wife Susan agreed to go. 

36 Know What You Don't Know (and Trust in What You Do)
ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
Television was a distant second to NBC and Iger as the new head, was supposed to fix that.  Bob thought about this new role, one of the most powerful in television, and decided he must be humble and admit what he didn't know - which was a lot.  He would be trained around the job in breakfast, lunch and dinner meetings with Stu Bloomberg, and Ted Harbert who had run ABC television with Brandon Stoddard and who'd agreed to coach Iger into the role.  Each day he would meet with managers, agents, writers, directors and TV stars where he asked a lot of questions.  Iger had to read mountains of scripts each night and then in the review the next day would observe how Stu dissected each one to evaluate them.  And they coached him on how to interact with creative people.  And he started to realize that he understood some of the details: structure, pacing, clarity; from years watching Roone tell stories.  He had to pick new shows that would drive up ABC's viewing, and he and the team did it by selecting: Steven Bochco's Doogie Howser, M.D., America's Funniest Home Videos, and David Lynch's Twin Peaks. 

Bob felt are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
the edgy Twin Peaks would allow ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
to compete against the upstart Fox Network and the cable TV offerings, with a powerful innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  Keynes noted it provided the unquantifiable beneficial possibility that limits fear of uncertainty.  Innovation operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
.  As Hollywood began to hear about the plan, Bob got calls from Steven Spielberg and George Lucas about working with them.  These responses helped convince Tom Murphy to proceed with Twin Peaks.  But then Bob pushed David Lynch to reveal who killed Laura Palmer during the second season.  The show lost its edge and Bob learned the creative process is not a science.  It's subjective and demands passion from the creators. 

Bob also selected Steven Bochco's Cop Rock for the spring 1990 season.  He felt it was risky, is an assessment of the likelihood of an independent problem occurring.  It can be assigned an accurate probability since it is independent of other variables in the system.  As such it is different from uncertainty. 
but big and it failed.  But it led to NYPD Blue which was a huge edgy success in 1993. 

Iger concluded he had the ability to urge creative people to do their best work and take chances, while helping them rebound from failure.  And it was enabled by Dan and Tom having faith in him so he had the courage to take big risks

At the beginning of 1993 Dan and Tom asked Bob to become president of ABC and eight months later president and COO of Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
/ABC when Dan retired.  And within six months Michael Eisner, CEO is chief executive officer. 
of the Walt Disney Company is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
asked about acquiring the company just as Tom proposed Bob replace him as CEO. 

50 Enter Disney
One part of the acquisition agreement with Eisner was that Bob Iger had to remain with the combined company for five years, where he would run Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
's media division from Los Angeles. 

Iger outlines Michael Eisner's proximate situation in 1995:
Tom Murphy suggested Bob might get to run Disney one day.  But Bob's life was anchored in New York: his daughters were there, his parents were in Long Island, his fiancee Willow Bay's career was there; and it became clear that Disney was not going to formerly offer him the COO position.  His agreement would help the deal to proceed.  And once it went through he felt obligated to protect the delegated authority of the Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
/ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
divisions. 

Once the deal was announced the Capital Cities/ABC executives, having worked for Tom and Dan for their entire careers were shocked.  Iger agreed it would be a difficult transition but he would work to support them.  He judged the deal very beneficial to Disney giving it the assets and scale to remain independent and grow significantly.  Soon after, Bob went to stay with Eisner and his wife and outlined the array of assets, to educate Michael and show he had Capital Cities/ABC under control.  And while there, Eisner & his wife introduced Bob to their friends Michael Ovitz and his family.  A week later Eisner alerted Bob that he was making Ovitz, Disney president and Bob's boss. 

Bob soon discovered how different Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
was to Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
:
  • Tom and Dan were warm and accessible
  • They were focused on managing expenses and increasing earnings and they supported a team who strived to do the same. 
  • They used decentralized management with very little centralized bureaucracy
  • Eisner and Frank Wells setup a powerful Strategic Planning organization, within a process driven company, which analyzed each business and its environment and provided recommendations for Eisner, while he made all the creative decisions himself.  
Eisner's first ten years as Disney CEO is chief executive officer. 
had expanded the company hugely, leveraging the innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  Keynes noted it provided the unquantifiable beneficial possibility that limits fear of uncertainty.  Innovation operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
synergies between the businesses exceptionally well.  But by the time Capital Cities was acquired the company was beginning to stumble.  After Wells died Katzenberg, who was running Animation, expected to become COO and pushed Eisner for this.  Instead Eisner forced him out of Disney and Animation began to fail.  Eisner responded by bringing in exceptional content from Pixar. 

Strategic Planning started to order around the Capital Cities was formed as the Hudson Valley Broadcasting Company by Hyman Rosenblum, Leo O'Brien and advertising executive Harry Goldman, licensed to broadcast radio in Albany, New York.  In 1954 investors from New York City led by Lowell Thomas purchased control of the company.  It was subsequently managed by Tom Murphy and Dan Burke, who began a series of broadcast company mergers, initially with Durham Broadcasting Enterprises, when the company was renamed Capital Cities Television Corporation in 1957.  It subsequently also expanded into newspaper publishing by purchasing Fairchild Publications.  In 1985 Capital Cities purchased the much larger ABC for $3.5 billion.  Warren Buffett, a friend of Capital Cities president Tom Murphy, financed the deal for 25% of the shareholding of the combined company.  The merged company was purchased by Disney in 1995. 
executives, and told Iger he, like the rest of Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
, could not expand, invest, or start anything new without Strategic Planning conducting a review and providing a recommendation to Eisner.  The Disney culture was strangling the entrepreneurial life out of Iger's organization.  And the relationship between Michael Eisner and Michael Ovitz rapidly soured.  Eisner needed help to run the huge complex centralized business while Ovitz still wanted to be a talent agent: accessible to clients and brimming with ideas that he felt the organization should action; rather than a manager.  The system became dysfunctional along with them.  It took a year for Eisner to fire Ovitz.  Iger concluded you must be able to explain how something will work, if you can't its time to ask:
  • What's the problem I need to solve?
  • Does this solution make sense?
  • If I'm feeling some doubt, why?
  • Am I doing this for sound reasons or am I motivated by something personal?

66 Second in Line
For the next three years Eisner ran Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
without a COO or president!  Iger tried to do his job the best he could and learn as much about the company as possible, but Eisner sometimes seemed to view Bob as a threat.  Iger asserts "a leader now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
should want those around you to be eager to rise up and take on more responsibility, as long as dreaming about the job they want doesn't distract them from the job they have.  You can't let ambition get too far ahead of opportunity." 

Iger views the people who prove themselves indispensible day after day as the ones a leader now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
should nurture.  Tom and Dan were invested in Bob's growth, and said how they wanted him to succeed and cleared a path for him to learn, move up and eventually replace them.  And he felt loyalty to them.  The leader must be self-aware enough to see they are not the only one who can do the job.  Good leaders help others be prepared to step up by: providing access to their decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
, identifying skills they need to develop, and tell them why they aren't yet ready for the next move. 

Eisner added building an international organization for Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
to Iger's ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
Group responsibilities.  Eisner knew Disney had to globalize and its international presence was disorganized.  Bob built a strategy which included developing Michael's goal of adding a theme park in China.  But ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
had become complacent and unimaginative and was beginning to stall, although the slide was masked by the introduction of Who Wants to Be a Millionaire in 1999 and the continued success of Monday Night Football.  Iger had Roone Arledge turn the millennium into a 24 hour global telethon Disney celebration, but that was a loan highpoint.  ABC fell back to 3rd place and was under pressure from Fox. 

Iger accepts the blame for the decline of ABC, since he was running it.  But Eisner was also struggling to run Disney and so the general counsel and Strategic Planning tried to organize the operations and morale fell.  Tom Murphy was at a Disney board meeting when Eisner told them he would never make Iger CEO.  He advised Bob to leave Disney.  But Bob wouldn't quit.  And instead Eisner asked Iger to move back to Los Angeles and help him run Disney!  It took another three months before Eisner offered Bob the roles of president and COO and a seat on the Disney board.  Moving back to the West Coast would still cause lots of personal issues, and that was just the start of the hard times. 

79 Good Things Can Happen
Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
had struggled after Walt died in 1966.  Private equity is the pooling of commitments from fund investors, to: buy assets that are not publicly traded: companies, real estate, and debt; improve their acquisition's value and sell them again, returning the sale cash to the fund investors.  Private equity companies gain competitive advantage from being lightly regulated, and wealth from the fees and special tax privileges.  Private equity companies were initially corporate raiders. 
and hedge funds is an investment fund that accepts investments from a limited number of accredited individual or institutional investors.  Hedge funds are able to use investment methods that are not allowed for other types of fund. 
had repeatedly tried to acquire the company.  It was Michael Eisner who turned it round in 1984.  Iger says Eisner "re-founded" it.  Roy Disney and Sid Bass brought in Eisner from Paramount to be CEO is chief executive officer. 
, Frank Wells the former chief of Warner Brothers as president and Jeffrey Katzenberg who had worked for Eisner to run Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
Studios. 

Katzenberg and Eisner revitalized Animation which catalyzed the brand and consumer product growth.  Eisner turned Disney into a modern entertainment giant:
With Iger as COO, Eisner was able to split the responsibilities, with Eisner focusing on: Walt Disney Studios, Parks; while Iger handled Media, Consumer Products, and International.  Iger observed Eisner's creative ability.  He could visit Imagineering and see the big picture and relate it to the details they described.  He would encourage continuous improvement of the details until the products and service offers were magical.  But Iger observed this remarkable skill was viewed by many as micro-managing.  Especially once Disney stopped performing.  By 2001 all media and entertainment companies were struggling with technology driven business model
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
disruption
, which created a climate of fear is an emotion which prepares the body for time sensitive action: Blood is sent to the muscles from the gut and skin, Adrenalin is released stimulating: Fuel to be released from the liver, Blood is encouraged to clot, and Face is wide-eyed and fearful.  The short-term high priority goal, experienced as a sense of urgency, is to flee, fight or deflect the danger.  There are both 'innate' - really high priority learning - which are mediated by the central amygdala and learned fears which are mediated by the BLA which learns to fear a stimulus and then signals the central amygdala.  Tara Brach notes we experience fear as a painfully constricted throat, chest and belly, and racing heart.  The mind can build stories of the future which include fearful situations making us anxious about current ideas and actions that we associate with the potential future scenario.  And it can associate traumatic events from early childhood with our being at fault.  Consequent assumptions of our being unworthy can result in shame and fear of losing friendships.  The mechanism for human fear was significantly evolved to protect us in the African savanna.  This does not align perfectly with our needs in current environments: U.S. Grant was unusually un-afraid of the noise or risk of guns and trusted his horses' judgment, which mostly benefited his agency as a modern soldier. 
.  But Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
had particular challenges which terrified its board:
The board announced they were looking for a new CEO, and signalled, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
that Iger was the only internal candidate

98 It's About the Future
Iger now had to convince a dubious board that he could transform Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
and its results as they needed while not criticizing his boss, Michael Eisner.  Scott Miller, a highly regarded brand manager and political campaign strategist, supplied the strategy:
  • This is a political campaign
  • You must focus on the 'swing' directors and convince them
  • You must present yourself as an insurgent focused only on the future - removing the bind of criticizing the past
  • Your message can only have three parts
Iger quickly selected the three highest priorities from the many aspects he had been considering for a year:
  1. People will have more choice.  Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
    's brand, associated relentlessly with quality, can help them make an easy and successful pick. 
  2. New technology can provide the
    This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
    infrastructure
    to enhance the product quality, and expand its delivery to the myriad new ways to access content and purchase products.  
  3. Revenue growth can be accelerated by building out the Chinese and Indian markets with a global brand
Iger spent a miserable year leveraging the strategy and repeating the signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
to the swing directors.  He was attacked by those who wanted an external change agent and once lost his composure.  But he was selected to be the next CEO.  He called his parents, and his old bosses Tom and DanAnd he called Steve Jobs was an innovative entrepreneur who integrated art and culture with engineering, and is responsible for: the strong sexual selection force of the: Macintosh, iPod, iPad and iPhone; and their dedicated fan base.  He helped John Lasseter and Ed Catmull turn Pixar into a digital animation powerhouse and became Disney's largest shareholder when he and Robert Iger integrated Disney and Pixar.  He cofounded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak where Wozniak designed a particularly simple microprocessor based computer, the Apple 1 and Jobs made it elegant.  Struck by the relative simplicity and ease of use of PARC's Alto, Jobs and Wozniak began building the Lisa.  But Jobs decided it was flawed and took a small group aside to build the Macintosh which the whole team were happy to sign their names on the inside.  Born February 24th 1955, Steve's birth mother Joanne Schieble was forced by her father to have the boy adopted rather than allow her to marry his Muslim Syrian birth father, Abdulfattah Jandali, the last of nine children of a hugely wealthy trader, Walter Isaacson explains.  The baby was adopted by Paul Reinhold Jobs, a highly practical mechanic and a mild kind father, and Clara Hagopian, also sweet-humored, and when Steve was two they adopted Patty.  The Jobs lived in an Eichler (a design inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright), in Mountain View, California, which had a strong influence on Steve, as he explained to Isaacson, "Eichler did a great thing.  His houses were smart and cheap and good.  They brought clean design and simple taste to lower income people.  They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors.  You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids."  Steve Jobs knew early on that he was adopted, which pained him supporting development of his Challenger personality type.  It was also clear to Steve that he was unlike his adopted parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, who stressed to him that they picked him specifically and that he was special.  They tolerated Steve's high risk activities and ensured he was safe when problems occurred.  Paul Jobs impressed Steve as a child, with his valuing quality workmanship, and his practical capabilities.  Paul could repair any car and Steve became interested in the electronics aspects.  He was helped by neighbors who were electrical engineers: Larry Lang; the geographic cluster that formed around Hewlett Packard and Intel.  And he then joined a neighborhood electronics club where he was introduced to Steve Wozniak.  But the young Steve Jobs was shocked when he discovered his father did not correctly understand some aspects of the world, and Steve realized he was much more intelligent than his parents Paul and Clara.  With their support he followed his curiosity and resisted any attempt to stop him.  His powerful drive made his parents, teachers, local business leaders: Bill Hewlett, Nolan Bushnell; and coaches go along.  At Reed College he pushed to attend courses he was interested in: calligraphy; rather than follow the syllabus, and they let him.  They even allowed him to continue when he stopped his parents from paying more tuition.  His stressed individualist continually sought out gurus: Shunryu Suzuki, Neem Karoli Baba; and visionaries who might help Steve understand who he really was.  Jobs became ill with pancreatic cancer which metastasized to his liver.  He died on October 5th 2011 and was buried in Palo Alto, California, after a small funeral. 
alerting him to Iger's desire to rebuild the failing Pixar partnership

Leading

115 The Power of Respect
In the six month period between the announcement that Iger was to be the next CEO is chief executive officer. 
of Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
and Eisner leaving, Bob was planning to keep a low profile and learn as much as possible about the company.  But:

127 Disney-Pixar and a New Path to the Future
Iger knew he must urgently fix Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
Animation.  But as he looked for potential solutions there was only one that helped achieve his three priorities: buying Pixar. It would require a multi-part strategy:
Iger and Jobs made the announcement of the acquisition.  But half an hour before they were to meet with the press, Jobs was an innovative entrepreneur who integrated art and culture with engineering, and is responsible for: the strong sexual selection force of the: Macintosh, iPod, iPad and iPhone; and their dedicated fan base.  He helped John Lasseter and Ed Catmull turn Pixar into a digital animation powerhouse and became Disney's largest shareholder when he and Robert Iger integrated Disney and Pixar.  He cofounded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak where Wozniak designed a particularly simple microprocessor based computer, the Apple 1 and Jobs made it elegant.  Struck by the relative simplicity and ease of use of PARC's Alto, Jobs and Wozniak began building the Lisa.  But Jobs decided it was flawed and took a small group aside to build the Macintosh which the whole team were happy to sign their names on the inside.  Born February 24th 1955, Steve's birth mother Joanne Schieble was forced by her father to have the boy adopted rather than allow her to marry his Muslim Syrian birth father, Abdulfattah Jandali, the last of nine children of a hugely wealthy trader, Walter Isaacson explains.  The baby was adopted by Paul Reinhold Jobs, a highly practical mechanic and a mild kind father, and Clara Hagopian, also sweet-humored, and when Steve was two they adopted Patty.  The Jobs lived in an Eichler (a design inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright), in Mountain View, California, which had a strong influence on Steve, as he explained to Isaacson, "Eichler did a great thing.  His houses were smart and cheap and good.  They brought clean design and simple taste to lower income people.  They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors.  You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids."  Steve Jobs knew early on that he was adopted, which pained him supporting development of his Challenger personality type.  It was also clear to Steve that he was unlike his adopted parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, who stressed to him that they picked him specifically and that he was special.  They tolerated Steve's high risk activities and ensured he was safe when problems occurred.  Paul Jobs impressed Steve as a child, with his valuing quality workmanship, and his practical capabilities.  Paul could repair any car and Steve became interested in the electronics aspects.  He was helped by neighbors who were electrical engineers: Larry Lang; the geographic cluster that formed around Hewlett Packard and Intel.  And he then joined a neighborhood electronics club where he was introduced to Steve Wozniak.  But the young Steve Jobs was shocked when he discovered his father did not correctly understand some aspects of the world, and Steve realized he was much more intelligent than his parents Paul and Clara.  With their support he followed his curiosity and resisted any attempt to stop him.  His powerful drive made his parents, teachers, local business leaders: Bill Hewlett, Nolan Bushnell; and coaches go along.  At Reed College he pushed to attend courses he was interested in: calligraphy; rather than follow the syllabus, and they let him.  They even allowed him to continue when he stopped his parents from paying more tuition.  His stressed individualist continually sought out gurus: Shunryu Suzuki, Neem Karoli Baba; and visionaries who might help Steve understand who he really was.  Jobs became ill with pancreatic cancer which metastasized to his liver.  He died on October 5th 2011 and was buried in Palo Alto, California, after a small funeral. 
told Iger that his pancreatic is most often an exocrine tumor.  Islet cell tumors are less common.  These are rare cancers: less than 200,000 US cases per year, but the five year survival rates are extremely low 3%.  They all have KRAS mutations.  They are associated with obesity.  Diagnostics are starting to leverage genomics and big databases (23 and me).  Treatments include:
  • Avastin
  • Tarceva 
cancer is the out-of-control growth of cells, which have stopped obeying their cooperative schematic planning and signalling infrastructure.  It results from compounded: oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA caretaker; mutations in the DNA.  In 2010 one third of Americans are likely to die of cancer.  Cell division rates did not predict likelihood of cancer.  Viral infections are associated.  Radiation and carcinogen exposure are associated.  Lifestyle impacts the likelihood of cancer occurring: Drinking alcohol to excess, lack of exercise, Obesity, Smoking, More sun than your evolved melanin protection level; all significantly increase the risk of cancer occurring (Jul 2016). 
had returned and he would be lucky to live another four years.  Iger went ahead with the deal.  That evening Bob, and his wife who had known Steve Jobs for many years, cried about Steve's awful situation. 

151 Marvel and Massive Risks That Make Perfect Sense
Acquiring Pixar was just the first stage of Iger's growth strategy based on increasing the amount of high-quality branded content that could be leveraged across all the Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
businesses: theme parks, publishing, and consumer products. 

There were two companies which were creating this type of content: Marvel and Lucas Film; Iger explains how he reached out to Marvel's current owner, Ike Perlmutter, through a former colleague, who had been hired by Marvel to enter the film business.  Iger waited patiently and when he heard Perlmutter would meet Iger went to his office alone to begin the process.  He described the potential for both Disney and Marvel, and his goal of setting up Marvel as semi-autonomous - like Pixar. 

Iger asked Steve Jobs was an innovative entrepreneur who integrated art and culture with engineering, and is responsible for: the strong sexual selection force of the: Macintosh, iPod, iPad and iPhone; and their dedicated fan base.  He helped John Lasseter and Ed Catmull turn Pixar into a digital animation powerhouse and became Disney's largest shareholder when he and Robert Iger integrated Disney and Pixar.  He cofounded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak where Wozniak designed a particularly simple microprocessor based computer, the Apple 1 and Jobs made it elegant.  Struck by the relative simplicity and ease of use of PARC's Alto, Jobs and Wozniak began building the Lisa.  But Jobs decided it was flawed and took a small group aside to build the Macintosh which the whole team were happy to sign their names on the inside.  Born February 24th 1955, Steve's birth mother Joanne Schieble was forced by her father to have the boy adopted rather than allow her to marry his Muslim Syrian birth father, Abdulfattah Jandali, the last of nine children of a hugely wealthy trader, Walter Isaacson explains.  The baby was adopted by Paul Reinhold Jobs, a highly practical mechanic and a mild kind father, and Clara Hagopian, also sweet-humored, and when Steve was two they adopted Patty.  The Jobs lived in an Eichler (a design inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright), in Mountain View, California, which had a strong influence on Steve, as he explained to Isaacson, "Eichler did a great thing.  His houses were smart and cheap and good.  They brought clean design and simple taste to lower income people.  They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors.  You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids."  Steve Jobs knew early on that he was adopted, which pained him supporting development of his Challenger personality type.  It was also clear to Steve that he was unlike his adopted parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, who stressed to him that they picked him specifically and that he was special.  They tolerated Steve's high risk activities and ensured he was safe when problems occurred.  Paul Jobs impressed Steve as a child, with his valuing quality workmanship, and his practical capabilities.  Paul could repair any car and Steve became interested in the electronics aspects.  He was helped by neighbors who were electrical engineers: Larry Lang; the geographic cluster that formed around Hewlett Packard and Intel.  And he then joined a neighborhood electronics club where he was introduced to Steve Wozniak.  But the young Steve Jobs was shocked when he discovered his father did not correctly understand some aspects of the world, and Steve realized he was much more intelligent than his parents Paul and Clara.  With their support he followed his curiosity and resisted any attempt to stop him.  His powerful drive made his parents, teachers, local business leaders: Bill Hewlett, Nolan Bushnell; and coaches go along.  At Reed College he pushed to attend courses he was interested in: calligraphy; rather than follow the syllabus, and they let him.  They even allowed him to continue when he stopped his parents from paying more tuition.  His stressed individualist continually sought out gurus: Shunryu Suzuki, Neem Karoli Baba; and visionaries who might help Steve understand who he really was.  Jobs became ill with pancreatic cancer which metastasized to his liver.  He died on October 5th 2011 and was buried in Palo Alto, California, after a small funeral. 
, by then a friend, major shareholder in Disney, and the most technology savvy of its board members, to share his experience of the Pixar acquisition with Perlmutter, which encouraged Ike to agree to the deal.  Steve did this, because Bob was his friend.  As a person, Jobs hated comic books, and never enjoyed the experience of super-hero movies.  Iger benefited greatly from the friendship and advice Steve gave him.  But he notes how Steve hated the low price hotel rooms that Disney had developed under Iger's leadership.  And when Jobs decided he didn't rate four of the Disney board he voted against their reelection.  This would be a big problem for Bob and Steve changed his vote as a favor to his friend. 

Iger notes that in chatting with Comcast's Brian Roberts in a shared car ride on the way back from a White House dinner with president Obama, Roberts explained that Jeff Immelt of GE was bemused at Disney wanting to buy Marvel.  It was a tough signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
for Iger who could only wait for the results of the acquisition to prove his gut feel correct. 

While Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
assimilated Marvel easily, Iger found he had to separate the Marvel film unit, based in Los Angeles, from the other businesses which Ike continued to run from New York.  The movie business does not operate like a regular business and the essential creativity can be easily squashed.  And success can't be guaranteed.  But firing people or taking responsibilities away from them is never easy.  The best you can do is be honest and direct about the issue.  As a leader you may have put someone in a position that they fail to transition into.  For Iger it is necessary to contain the damage, learn from his missteps and quickly move on.  He argues you must surround yourself with people who are good as well as good at what they do.  Demand honesty and integrity from everyone and deal with any lapses immediately. 

With Marvel creating powerful branded content for Disney, Iger was able to challenge the organization to go beyond its comfort zone and create world-wide blockbuster films with female superhero leads and from black-led stories: Black Panther; which Iger felt are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
would enhance the opportunities for black film makers and actors, and open minds across the world. 

173 Star Wars
Iger laments that Jobs was an innovative entrepreneur who integrated art and culture with engineering, and is responsible for: the strong sexual selection force of the: Macintosh, iPod, iPad and iPhone; and their dedicated fan base.  He helped John Lasseter and Ed Catmull turn Pixar into a digital animation powerhouse and became Disney's largest shareholder when he and Robert Iger integrated Disney and Pixar.  He cofounded Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak where Wozniak designed a particularly simple microprocessor based computer, the Apple 1 and Jobs made it elegant.  Struck by the relative simplicity and ease of use of PARC's Alto, Jobs and Wozniak began building the Lisa.  But Jobs decided it was flawed and took a small group aside to build the Macintosh which the whole team were happy to sign their names on the inside.  Born February 24th 1955, Steve's birth mother Joanne Schieble was forced by her father to have the boy adopted rather than allow her to marry his Muslim Syrian birth father, Abdulfattah Jandali, the last of nine children of a hugely wealthy trader, Walter Isaacson explains.  The baby was adopted by Paul Reinhold Jobs, a highly practical mechanic and a mild kind father, and Clara Hagopian, also sweet-humored, and when Steve was two they adopted Patty.  The Jobs lived in an Eichler (a design inspired by Frank Lloyd Wright), in Mountain View, California, which had a strong influence on Steve, as he explained to Isaacson, "Eichler did a great thing.  His houses were smart and cheap and good.  They brought clean design and simple taste to lower income people.  They had awesome little features, like radiant heating in the floors.  You put carpet on them, and we had nice toasty floors when we were kids."  Steve Jobs knew early on that he was adopted, which pained him supporting development of his Challenger personality type.  It was also clear to Steve that he was unlike his adopted parents, Paul and Clara Jobs, who stressed to him that they picked him specifically and that he was special.  They tolerated Steve's high risk activities and ensured he was safe when problems occurred.  Paul Jobs impressed Steve as a child, with his valuing quality workmanship, and his practical capabilities.  Paul could repair any car and Steve became interested in the electronics aspects.  He was helped by neighbors who were electrical engineers: Larry Lang; the geographic cluster that formed around Hewlett Packard and Intel.  And he then joined a neighborhood electronics club where he was introduced to Steve Wozniak.  But the young Steve Jobs was shocked when he discovered his father did not correctly understand some aspects of the world, and Steve realized he was much more intelligent than his parents Paul and Clara.  With their support he followed his curiosity and resisted any attempt to stop him.  His powerful drive made his parents, teachers, local business leaders: Bill Hewlett, Nolan Bushnell; and coaches go along.  At Reed College he pushed to attend courses he was interested in: calligraphy; rather than follow the syllabus, and they let him.  They even allowed him to continue when he stopped his parents from paying more tuition.  His stressed individualist continually sought out gurus: Shunryu Suzuki, Neem Karoli Baba; and visionaries who might help Steve understand who he really was.  Jobs became ill with pancreatic cancer which metastasized to his liver.  He died on October 5th 2011 and was buried in Palo Alto, California, after a small funeral. 
did not live to see the leverage of Marvel.  But in his last six years Jobs had developed a very strong bond with Iger.  As he became weaker he still helped his friend, telling another friend, George Lucas, how beneficial the integration of Pixar and Disney had been, catalyzing, an infrastructure amplifier. 
this additional important acquisition. 

Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
had already worked with Lucas to create rides at its parks based on Star Wars.  And George had been inspired by Twin Peaks to work with Iger on a new idea, The Young Indiana Jones for the ABC, the American Broadcasting Company, was initially a broadcast radio network founded in 1943 which extended into television in 1948, following CBS and NBC.  The radio network was sold to Citadel Broadcasting in 2007.  In the 1950s ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres then run by Leonard Goldenson.  Goldenson drove the development of many successful series which made ABC profitable.  ABC supported the NAM driven strategy to leverage Hollywood, corporate advertising and broadcast communications to reinvent the Republican party as representing Judeo-Christianity and undermine the New Deal.  Goldenson supported ABC's sale to Capital Cities Communications.  This merger was financed by value investment hedge fund manager Warren Buffett, who subsequently catalyzed the sale of the combined entity to Disney. 
television network.  Iger met with George at a reopening of one of the upgraded Star Wars rides to introduce the idea of an acquisition.  Bob avoided introducing any pressure, and used patience to allow George time to decide this would benefit his legacy.  Bob used his analysts to scope the deal as best he could, provided George with a sale price that matched the Marvel acquisition, and handled the pressure from the board and Wall Street so that the first Disney produced Star Wars film was of high quality and pleasing to the Star Wars fans. 

189 If You Don't Innovate, You Die
Iger explains how Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
's major businesses were being
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
disrupted
, and he could finally respond now that the acquisitions: Pixar, Marvel, Lucas; had been aggregated is when a number of actions become coordinated and operate together.  In the adaptive web framework's Smiley, codelets become coordinated by their relative position in the deployment cascade.  The cascade's dynamics are dependent on the situation, the operating codelets responses to that situation and the grouping of schematic strings they are associated with.  The aggregate effect is a phenotype the adaptive agent. 
.  Iger's solution was to change their business models to start delivering their content over the Internet directly to the consumer's selected device, served from a Disney owned platform is agent generated infrastructure that supports emergence of an entity through: leverage of an abundant energy source, reusable resources; attracting a phenotypically aligned network of agents. 


Iger explains the dilemma involved for any innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  Keynes noted it provided the unquantifiable beneficial possibility that limits fear of uncertainty.  Innovation operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
and profit oriented business: to make the change Disney would be asymmetrically attacking its own profit generating businesses, undermining their management's success, and reducing short-term results demanded by Wall Street; for the promise of long-term survival and growth. 

Iger could see no choice; he must quickly change the business models and
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
infrastructure
.  Speed of execution demanded that he buy the technology that would provide the infrastructure of the platform his 'new businesses' would leverage.  He was close to buying Twitter, and Jack Dorsey was on the board of Disney, but Iger could feel are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
the problems of social media contaminating the Disney brand: how to manage hate speech, having to decide about freedom of speech, fake accounts generating misinformation, rage is a doomsday machine emotion of uncontrollable righteous anger. 
of the user groups.  Instead, he pivoted to acquiring control of BAMTech's technology roadmap. 

The board would have to change the metrics and incentives, in innovative and effective ways, or the leaders of Disney's main line businesses would resist the business model changes and profit constraints.  And the board would have to push back on Wall Street if it demanded short-term profits.  Iger notes the announcement helped him focus the whole
The complex adaptive system (CAS) nature of a value delivery system is first introduced.  It's a network of agents acting as relays. 

The critical nature of hub agents and the difficulty of altering an aligned network is reviewed. 

The nature of and exceptional opportunities created by platforms are discussed. 

Finally an example of aligning a VDS is presented. 
VDS
on reinvention. 

Just after the BAMTech announcement Rupert Murdoch invited Iger over for a glass of wine.  Murdoch wanted to quiz him about standing for US president in 2020.  And he obliquely signalled, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
an interest in selling Fox to Disney.  Iger felt the US is the United States of America.   populous was dissatisfied with politics, and the US was being disrupted, and he had been studying
The structure and problems of the US health care network is described in terms of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. 

The network:
  • Is deeply embedded in the US nation state. It reflects the conflict between two opposing visions for the US: high tax with safety net or low tax without.  The emergence of a parasitic elite supported by tax policy, further constrains the choices available to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the network.  
    • The US is optimized to sell its citizens dangerous levels of: salt, sugar, cigarettes, guns, light, cell phones, opioids, costly education, global travel, antibacterials, formula, foods including endocrine disrupters;
    • Accepting the US controlled global supply chain's offered goods & services results in: debt, chronic stress, amplified consumption and toxic excess, leading to obesity, addiction, driving instead of walking, microbiome collapse;
    • Globalization connects disparate environments in a network.  At the edges, humans are drastically altering the biosphere.  That is reducing the proximate natural environment's connectedness, and leaving its end-nodes disconnected and far less diverse.  This disconnects predators from their prey, often resulting in local booms and busts that transform the local parasite network and their reservoir and amplifier hosts.  The situation is setup so that man is introduced to spillover from the local parasites' hosts.  Occasionally, but increasingly, the spillover results in humanity becoming broadly infected.  The evolved specialization of the immune system to the proximate environment during development becomes undermined as the environment transforms. 
  • Is incented to focus on localized competition generating massive & costly duplication of services within physician based health care operations instead of proven public health strategies.  This process drives increasing research & treatment complexity and promotes hope for each new technological breakthrough. 
  • Is amplified by the legislatively structured separation and indirection of service development, provision, reimbursement and payment. 
  • Is impacted by the different political strategies for managing the increasing cost of health care for the demographic bulge of retirees.  
  • Is presented with acute and chronic problems to respond to.  As currently setup the network is tuned to handle acute problems.  The interactions with patients tend to be transactional. 
  • Includes a legislated health insurance infrastructure which is:
    • Costly and inefficient
    • Structured around yearly contracts which undermine long-term health goals and strategies.  
  • Is supported by increasingly regulated HCIT which offers to improve data sharing and quality but has entrenched commercial EHR products deep within the hospital systems.  
  • Is maintained, and kept in alignment, by massive network effects across the:
    • Hospital platform based sub-networks connecting to
    • Physician networks
    • Health insurance networks - amplified by ACA narrow network legislation
    • Hospital clinical supply and food production networks
    • Medical school and academic research network and NIH
    • Global transportation network 
    • Public health networks 
    • Health care IT supply network
healthcare
,
Johnson & Kwak argue that expanding the national debt provides a hedge against unforeseen future problems, as long as creditors are willing to continue lending.  They illustrate different approaches to managing the debt within the US over its history and of the eighteenth century administrations of England and France. 

The US embodies two different political and economic systems which approach the national debt differently:
  • Taxes to support a sinking fund to ensure credit to leverage fiscal power in: Wars, Pandemics, Trade disputes, Hurricanes, Social programs; Starting with Hamilton, Lincoln & Chase, Wilson, FDR;
  • Low taxes, limited infrastructure, with risk assumed by individuals: Advocated by President's Jefferson & Madison, Reagan, George W. Bush (Gingrich);
Johnson & Kwak develop a model of what the US government does.  They argue that the conflicting sinking fund and low tax approaches leaves the nation 'stuck in the middle' with a future problem.  And they offer their list of 'first principles' to help assess the best approach for moving from 2012 into the future.  

They conclude the question is still political.  They hope it can be resolved with an awareness of their detailed explanations.  They ask who is willing to push all the coming risk onto individuals. 

Following our summary of their arguments RSS frames them from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  Historically developing within the global cotton value delivery system, key CAS features are highlighted. 

taxation
, ... but still felt ill-prepared and told Murdoch he was not going to run in 2020.  But he did follow-up on Murdoch's possible signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
about selling Fox.  As Iger's team
The page reviews how complex systems can be analyzed. 
The resulting analysis supports evaluation of system events. 
The analysis enables categorization of different events into classes. 
The analysis helps with recombination of the models to enable creativity. 
The page advocates an iterative approach including support from models. 

analyzed
the opportunity they realized Fox's assets already aligned effectively with Iger's Disney priorities.  The potential of the aggregate entity are, according to Abbott, a class including people, families, corporations, hurricanes.  They implement abstract designs and are demarcatable by their reduced entropy relative to their components.  Rovelli notes entities are a collection of relations and events, but memory and our continuous process of anticipation, organizes the series of quantized interactions we perceive into an illusion of permanent objects flowing from past to future.  Abbott identifies two types of entity:
  1. At equilibrium entities,
  2. Autonomous entities, which can control how they are affected by outside forces;
was huge and so was the uncertainty is when a factor is hard to measure because it is dependent on many interconnected agents and may be affected by infrastructure and evolved amplifiers.  This is different from risk, although the two are deliberately conflated by ERISA.  Keynes argued that most aspects of the future are uncertain, at best represented by ordinal probabilities, and often only by capricious hope for future innovation, fear inducing expectations of limited confidence, which evolutionary psychology implies is based on the demands of our hunter gatherer past.  Deacon notes reduced uncertainty equates to information. 


203 No Price on Integrity
Rupert Murdoch's decision integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
to sell Fox to Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
was based on his judgment of the long term effects of the
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
disruption
of media enterprises.  He liked Iger's strategy and insisted as a condition of the deal that Iger stay on to achieve the integration and transformation. 

In parallel Iger had to contend with other challenges:

215 Core Values
On June 12, 2018 the courts judged, AT&T could buy Time Warner.  Iger had a clever two part response prepaired:
  1. Comcast's offer for Fox was all cash, while Disney is the Walt Disney Corporation which, according to its 6th CEO, Bob Iger, "makes movies and television shows and Broadway musicals, games and costumes and toys and books.  We build theme parks and rides, hotels and cruise ships.  We stage parades and street shows and concerts every day in our fourteen parks across the world.  We manufacture fun."  But he notes it must provide quarterly earnings reports and meet sharholder expectations and countless other obligations.  Additionally Disney, under founder Walt, was a major influencer of the NAM driven Republican strategy to leverage Christianity to undermine FDR and the New Deal. 
    was offering stock.  He would increase the Disney offer based on 50% cash to be $3 a share higher than Comcast's current proposal.  This would force Comcast to take on more debt to increase its all cash offer.  
  2. Disney told the Department of Justice that it would commit to sell off problematic bits of the joint company and gained its agreement to recommend against a monopoly is a power relation within:
    • A state in which a group has enough power to enforce its will on other citizens.  If this is a central authority with a cohesive military, it can overpower other warlords and stabilize the society. 
    • An economy in which one business has enough share in a market segment to control margins to its advantage.  An economic monopoly can be broadly beneficial: AT&T monopoly, US patent monopoly rights;
    investigation.  This should please the Fox board.  
Iger, and his team, met with Rupert Murdoch, the day before Fox was to consider the Comcast counter offer with his new proposal.  Murdoch agreed with it and so did the board.  Eventually Comcast abandoned its bid for Fox.  Integrating Fox with Disney fully implemented Iger's three priorities.  Wall Street approved and Disney's share price rose significantly. 

Rather than retiring, Iger found himself working harder than ever to make everything work.  He knew that success can also undermine leadership now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
, so he repeatedly asked his close executives to tell him if he was being too dismissive or impatient.  And he reflects that his priorities did not provide a clear direction but instead helped bolster his beliefs, helped him trust and distrust are evolved responses to sham emotions.  During a friendship where no sham emotions have been detected trust will build up. 
his instincts, and allowed him to leverage his mentors' lessons.  Iger stresses the contribution of luck in his success.  And he also notes you must keep in
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter-gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

mind
, "that wherever you are along the path, you're the same person you've always been." 

225 Appendix: Lessons to lead by
Iger summarizes the key points about leadership now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 



This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can illuminate and clarify complex situations and be applied flexibly.  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
comparative
The page reviews how complex systems can be analyzed. 
The resulting analysis supports evaluation of system events. 
The analysis enables categorization of different events into classes. 
The analysis helps with recombination of the models to enable creativity. 
The page advocates an iterative approach including support from models. 

analysis
sets Iger's leadership now aims to develop plans and strategies which ensure effective coordination to improve the common good of the in-group.  Pinker notes the evolved pressure of social rivalry associating power with leadership.  Different evolved personality types reinforced during development provided hunter-gatherer bands with alternate adult capabilities for coping with the various challenges of the African savanna.  As the situation changed different personalities would prove most helpful in leading the band.  Big men, chiefs and leaders of early states leveraged their power over the flow of resources to capture and redistribute wealth to their supporters.  As the environmental state changed and began threatening the polity's fitness, one leader would be abandoned, replaced by another who the group hoped might improve the situation for all.  Sapolsky observes the disconnect that occurs between power hierarchies and wisdom in apes.  In modern Anglo-American style corporations, which typically follow Malthus, and are disconnected from the cultural superOrganism nest site, the goal of leadership has become detached from the needs of this broader polity, instead: seeking market and revenue growth, hiring and firing workers, and leveraging power to reduce these commitments further.  Dorner notes that corporate executives show an appreciation of how to control a CAS.  Robert Iger with personality types: Reformer, Achiever, Investigator; describes his time as Disney CEO, where he experienced a highly aligned environment, working to nurture the good and manage the bad.  He notes something is always coming up.  Leadership requires the ability to adapt to challenges while compartmentalizing.  John Boyd: Achiever, Investigator, Challenger; could not align with the military hierarchy but developed an innovative systematic perspective which his supporters championed and politicians leveraged.  John Adair developed a modern leadership methodology based on the three-circles model. 
experience in a broad context:

Bob Iger's entertainingly crafted study of leadership describes what he learnt from a liftime's experiences working on producing artistic creations. 




























































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integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Program Management
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