Inventing Christian America
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Inventing Christian America

Summary
Kevin Kruse argues that from 1930 onwards the corporate elite and the Republican party have developed and relentlessly executed strategies to undermine Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal.  Their successful strategy used the credibility of conservative religious leaders to:

Following our summary of his arguments RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio frames them from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  Strategy is the art of the possible.  But it also depends on persistence. 

One Nation Under God
In Kevin Kruse's book 'One Nation Under God' he describes the inception and iterative execution of corporate America's strategic plans to undermine Franklin Roosevelt's (FDR) New Deal.

Kruse highlights Eisenhower's 1952 "great crusade for freedom" campaign, developed with advice and religious references from Billy Graham, as a
This page discusses the impact of random events which once they occur encourage a particular direction forward for a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
frozen accident
, leveraging a national re-education infrastructure that helped America learn to believe it had always been religious.  Kruse challenges the resulting present day assumption of a close relationship between religion and politics.  He asserts that the historical record shows the founding fathers' preference for a wall of separation between church and state.  Since this is no longer the popular notion of the constitutional relationship Kruse asks 'why is there a difference?'  He concludes there were two key influences:
  1. The onset of the cold war, and
  2. A republican faith based response to FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
    • New Deal strategies including:
      • SSA
      • FFDCA 
      • IRC
    • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
    • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
    's New Deal.  This was a corporate strategy initiated by the NAM is the National Association of Manufacturers.   and the USCC is the United States Chamber of Commerce
    .  They appealed to evangelicals through 'free enterprise' and 'Christian libertarianism.'  The message was popularized by Abraham Vereide, Billy Graham, Herbert Hoover and Ronald Reagan.  But it was
    This page discusses the benefits of bringing agents and resources to the dynamically best connected region of a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
    centralized
    by Eisenhower with:
    • Support from corporate leaders - Financing, Marketing (J. Walter Thompson etc.), Educating (Hollywood). 
    • Almost no immediate opposition to the argument that the first amendment meant separation of church and state but not separation of religion and politics. 
Eisenhower's popular election with his public acts of faith was catalytic, an infrastructure amplifier.  .  Eisenhower came from a deeply religious family.  He responded from a basic belief in god.  He was baptized while in office.  He was the first President to attend a national prayer breakfast and to open his cabinet meetings with prayers.  In 1953 he declared the US is the United States of America.   government was based on biblical principles.  In 1954 Congress solidified the claim adding 'under God' to the pledge of allegiance. 

The 1950s were the first age of religious consensus which enabled a new idea 'public religiosity'. 

Freedom under God

After the 1929 crash, Great Depression and New Deal it became necessary for a new generation of Republicans to rehabilitate their party.  With little public credibility for the previous strategy based on G.M. and DuPont funding for the 1934 American Liberty League and its call for:
the leadership including: J. E. Hoover and corporate executives of General Motors (G.M.), General Electric (G.E.), Standard Oil (S.O.), Mutual Life (M.L.), Sears Roebuck; meeting at NAM is the National Association of Manufacturers.   in Dec. 1940 agreed to an indirect strategy proposed by NAM president Prentis - Free Enterprise Gospel supported by public relations through: films, radio, advertising, mail, press releases; driven by NAM. 

Reverend James Fifield provided the theological framework - he argued the New Deal violated the 10 commandments:
  • Stealing the rich's property
  • New Deal is a false idol
  • Christianity was to save individuals (capitalism) not the socialist welfare state.  
Fifield's First Congregational Church of Los Angeles promoted:
  • Christian libertarianism 'under God'. 
  • Business success as God's blessing. 
  • That the New Deal violated the constitution and ideas of the founding fathers. 
Spiritual Mobilization
In 1938 First Congregational Church took control of Spiritual Mobilization, founded in 1935. 
Spiritual Mobilization produced pamphlets, backed by Herbert Hoover, critical of FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
  • New Deal strategies including:
    • SSA
    • FFDCA 
    • IRC
  • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
  • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
calling on the clergy to reject the New Deal.  After FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
  • New Deal strategies including:
    • SSA
    • FFDCA 
    • IRC
  • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
  • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
overreached  - attempting to restructure and stuff the supreme court, and taking the economy into recession; Fifield gained more powerful backing. 

By 1942 First Congregational had huge congregations including the wealthy and powerful: 

Once the war finished J. Howard Pew, of Sun Oil joined the campaign.  He brought skills in strategic action which he applied to Spiritual Mobilization.   And Alfred Haake, Rutgers's economics chair and key influence at GM pushed for the campaign to change tactics.  He argued the campaign was too obviously manipulative.  Instead by making the clergy active participants, Spiritual Mobilization would gain more traction.  Haake argued to help the clergy to discover that their callings were threatened by the New Deal.  And they responded with many requesting copies of Herbert Hoover's anti New Deal notes and Hayek's
H. A. Hayek compares and contrasts collectivism and libertarianism. 
Road to Serfdom
.  They joined Spiritual Mobilization as representatives, increasing their commitment.  The change worked.  12,000 minister representatives, of mixed denominations including Jews, generated traction, which catalyzed more, un-attributable, investment from business.  G.M., DuPont, Cyanamid and L.A. Chamber of Commerce provided funds and fund raising. 

When the left attacked Fifield the right added more funding.  And by 1948 they could build on the initial fears of the cold war and Truman's reelection and potential socialized:
  • Security
  • Labor
  • Education
  • Medicine
  • Industry. 
A series of radio broadcasts were built around the implicit theme of 'creeping socialism'.  They were structured as public service announcements ensuring free air time. 
A monthly magazine Faith and Freedom featured Leonard Read, Ludwig von Mises, and Henry Hazlitt of the American Enterprise Institute but positioned itself as for ministers by ministers.  It solicited sermons but filtered out the liberal responses as immoral provides rules for identifying right from wrong.  It develops in stages with children using play to work out rules of appropriate behavior.  Kohlberg's 1950s experiments using children led him to conclude moral judgement is a cognitive process that develops in three stages.  Sapolsky raises issues with the framework: Its a model, It does not apply to other cultures, Intuition & emotion are as significant as cognition, Moral reasoning doesn't predict moral actions; and notes the capacity of the frontal cortex to regulate emotions and behavior is far more predictive.  The marshmallow test, performed on three to six year olds, actually predicted their subsequent SAT scores at high school, social success and lack of aggression, and forty years on more PFC activation during a frontal task and a lower BMI!  Jonathan Haidt argues people's moral decisions are rationalizations rather than using reasoning. 
.  Articles were consistently libertarian with a focus on Freedom under God, all advancing conservatism but they varied in style and sophistication. 

The preamble of the declaration of independence helped reframe by omission the founding fathers arguments on more government and the rule of law.  Suitably tailored the argument was read by Gregory Peck.  The committee to proclaim liberty sponsored adverts featuring the declaration.  The committee included luminaries from:
The committee asked clergy to provide instances based on the theme "freedom Under God".  J Walter Thompson, the advertising experts promoted radio broadcasts of sermons to be delivered on Independence Sunday.  C. B. DeMille produced the program featuring Hollywood stars: Jimmy Stewart, Lionel Barrymore, Gloria Swanson, Bing Crosby; The nation started to think of itself as "under god."

The great crusade
On 23 Sep. 1949 the US is the United States of America.   learned that the Soviet Union had atomic weapons.  This adds weight to Billy Graham's position that communism is a religion and God is against communism.  Major news groups started to educate the US populous that the US must get religious.  Graham moves from obscurity to a national figure.  250,000 attend Graham's Los Angeles revival.  The Billy Graham Evangelical Association helped popularize public prayer and it spread the message of Spiritual Mobilization more subtly and effectively.  

Kruse explains that the roots of the religious revival go back to the 1930s activities of James Fifield.  In 1949 religious revival was amplified by:

Government under god
President Elect Eisenhower argued "Our form of government has no sense unless it is grounded in a deeply-felt religious faith, and I don't care what it is."  The right leveraged Eisenhower's flexibility and included Judaism, Catholicism and Protestantism.  Eisenhower viewed religion as uniting and linking to the past.  So he was keen to increase belief within America. 

Eisenhower had long supported the Freedom Foundation with its vision of free enterprise making America great.  The foundation's president was advertising executive Don Belding who was an ally of James Fifield.  They promoted Faith & Freedom's Christian Libertarianism. 
Eisenhower and Herbert Hoover had together composed the charter for the foundation in 1948.  The charter linked:
  • Business to 'political and economic rights'. 
  • Belief in God to constitutional government and thus political & economic rights.  
The creed became part of the Eisenhower presidential campaign.  Boy scouts took the joint message to voter's door steps.  Eisenhower made it a concrete fixture in the federal government.  Libertarianism was consequently propping up government. 

Eisenhower stressed inclusion and re-iterated yearly support for the American Legion's 'Back to God' movement.  NBC supported free transmission of the 'Back to God' televised specials.  Jewish, protestant and catholic clerics were included.  Eisenhower and Vice president Nixon were featured speakers.  Nixon promoted fighting moral provides rules for identifying right from wrong.  It develops in stages with children using play to work out rules of appropriate behavior.  Kohlberg's 1950s experiments using children led him to conclude moral judgement is a cognitive process that develops in three stages.  Sapolsky raises issues with the framework: Its a model, It does not apply to other cultures, Intuition & emotion are as significant as cognition, Moral reasoning doesn't predict moral actions; and notes the capacity of the frontal cortex to regulate emotions and behavior is far more predictive.  The marshmallow test, performed on three to six year olds, actually predicted their subsequent SAT scores at high school, social success and lack of aggression, and forty years on more PFC activation during a frontal task and a lower BMI!  Jonathan Haidt argues people's moral decisions are rationalizations rather than using reasoning. 
collapse. 

Eisenhower supported fellow Kansan, New Deal hating Senator Carson who developed the national prayer breakfast with support from Conrad Hilton.  Eisenhower enjoyed it and also attended in subsequent years building a new tradition. 

Eisenhower helped institutionalize religion through his administration.  He required prayers at Cabinet.  The Cabinet then pushed Government under God to their agencies. 

Eisenhower was an enthusiastic supporter of the National Association of Evangelical's manifesto.  Its "Statement of Seven Divine Freedoms" was intended to replace FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
  • New Deal strategies including:
    • SSA
    • FFDCA 
    • IRC
  • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
  • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
's four freedoms were articulated by President Franklin Delano Roosvelt.  They are:
  1. Freedom of speech and expression
  2. Freedom of every person to worship God in his own way
  3. Freedom from want ... everywhere in the world
  4. Freedom from fear ... everywhere in the world
.  Once again the republican movement was focused on destroying the New Deal rather than any foreign threat. 

But Eisenhower resisted Republican attacks on the welfare state. 

Pledging Allegiance
Northern ministers concluded the civil war occured because of the Godlessness of the Constitution.  The National Reform Association proposed Christian amendments to the Constitution.  The Eisenhower administration assisted Senator Charles Sumner's Christian amendment.  But admitting the original constitution was not religious was inconsistant with the administration's general position.  It had argued that America was a Christian Nation as shown by history.  They cited court room oaths of 'so help me God'.  Eugene Rostow's ceremonial deism allow the courts to ignore challenges to their use. 

The pledge of allegiance was composed in 1892 but only became 'the pledge' after world war two in Dec. 1945 act of Congress made it official. 

In 1952 Democratic representative Louis Rabaut promoted adding 'Under God' to the pledge.  It was accepted by Congress on Jun. 8th 1954.  It was made law by Eisenhower on Jun. 14th 1954. 

Salmon Chase, Secretary of the Treasury is the department of the treasury.  it is a federal government executive department created by Act of Congress in 1789 to manage government revenue.  The Secretary of the Treasury is a Cabinet officer.  To support funding of high cost investments: Disaster recovery, Wars, Famines; the treasury can issue debt instruments and manage the national debt. 
in 1864 lobbied for authorization from Congress  to add 'In God we trust and distrust are evolved responses to sham emotions.  During a friendship where no sham emotions have been detected trust will build up. 
' to the coinage.  But Lincoln dismissed the idea.  Eisenhower, John Foster Dulles and Postmaster general Summerfield agreed to add 'In God we trust' to the stamps.  It proved popular and accelerated the push to add the phrase on the money.  Representative Bennett sponsored 'In God we trust' on the dollar bill in 1956. 

Pitchmen for piety
In 1955 Ronald Reagan, Walt Disney and ABC television linked religion (Jewish, Protestant, Catholic) to Disney's new theme park.  Walt Disney was a Congregationalist who used Christianity as a guide. 

Back in 1941 a strike at Disney had shifted Walt from a supporter of FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
  • New Deal strategies including:
    • SSA
    • FFDCA 
    • IRC
  • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
  • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
and the New Deal to the right.  And then following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the US Army commandeered the studio as a supply base.  After the war Disney was a staunch conservative. 

In 1958 Walt developed Liberty Street to celebrate 'one nation under God.'  After technical difficulties the street would wait until the development of Disney World in Florida. 

Kruse notes that political leaders and religious reformers were powerfully supported by Hollywood and Madison Avenue.  The film and advertising moguls had been constrained by New Deal F.T.C. regulation including checks on false claims.  They organized a 1941 conclave at Hot Springs Virginia, where global advertiser J. Walter Thompson's marketing star James Webb Young urged the industry to close ranks with corporate America and defend its interests as their own.  He noted that they had the power to control the channels of advertising communications.  They should create "public service" campaigns. 

It was agreed to develop the Advertising Council including advertisers and their corporate clients.  The council would promote:
  • Bond drives,
  • Material conservation campaigns
After the war ended the council continued with public services acts.  These were really public relations activities, selling the American people on free enterprise.  And they also helped Americans to resist becoming pawns of the master state.  Religion in American life (RAIL) was the council's most influential effort.  And it was aligned with Spiritual Mobilization.  J. Walter Thompson executed the campaign "Go to Church."  G.E.'s Wilson was chair of the RAIL campaign.  Union Carbide's Boggs coordinated with the Advertising Council.  Radio, Readers Digest, Sports Illustrated carried the message.  Social clubs and community organizations were supplied with templates of the execution plan to build on.  Church attendance through 1956 increased. 

Hollywood's DeMille was originally a socialist but disliked the New Deal effects so he worked with House Un-American Activities committee in 1945.  Good Americans, allied with James Fifield were contesting the religious high ground with liberals. 

Whose religious tradition?
Kruse writes about the Gideon's "line extension" from placing bibles in hotel and hospital rooms to supplying bibles to each serviceman during World War 2 and then New Testaments to 5th to 12th graders.  Targeting children of varied faiths was contentious raising issues relating to the separation of church and state.  Different state courts judgements on the practice disagreed.  Kruse explains that in contrast to Eisenhower's national but vague deism these acts by the Gideon's were local and specific.  New Jersey's State Supreme court, for example, condemned the Rutherford school board for allowing the Gideon's to distribute.  

Then in late 1951 the New York Board of Regents overseeing all public education in the state composed a school prayer, the "Regents' Prayer" they hoped would be read at public schools' daily flag ceremonies.  Many local authorities adopted the policy and prayer.  But the very generality of the prayer conflicted with the specific traditions of different communities.  The New York courts including the State Supreme Court accepted the Regents' Prayer as reflecting the long history of religion in the US.  However, in 1962 the US Supreme Court looked carefully at the "ceremonial deism" central to the case. 

The Supreme Court case aimed to clarify how the use of the prayer in school could be any different to the many other situations where religious artifacts were tolerated in public institutions.  Children can't choose.  In 1962 the majority of justices required the prayer be removed from schools but they accepted ceremonial deism.  But a minority of justices disagreed that this compromise was valid and so did the popular press.  Political leaders including Eisenhower, Hoover and some Southern Senators disagreed with the decision.  While religious leaders eventually concluded the decision was acceptable their congregations disagreed. 

Our so-called religious leaders
In Oct 1963 the Citizens Congressional Committee (CCC) sent a huge petition to Congress requesting a constitutional amendment permitting "devotional exercises" in public schools and opposing the 1962 Supreme Court decision

The executive secretary of the CCC was former advertising executive Charles Winegarner.  He promoted the committee as representing individuals from every Congressional district and every state.  But being a nephew of Gerald Smith, promotor of right wing causes, undermined his credibility.  Nevertheless, the prayer amendment had broad popular appeal and was seen as a means to overturn the Supreme Court's decision

By the spring of 1964, 113 representatives and 27 senators introduced 146 amendments to restore prayer and bible practice to public schools.  Prominent members of the lay population were pro-amendment.  Representative Frank Becker introduced the amendment and was fully committed to getting it passed. 

Opponents of school prayer felt the proposals damaged the 1st amendment.  Representative Emanuel Celler, chair of the house judiciary committee, was a liberal Jew who opposed the proposed amendments.  He argued that "No matter how narrow such a proposal may be it is, nevertheless, an opening wedge toward elimination of one of our basic tenets, the separation of church & state." 

Celler stopped any amendment from exiting the committee.  Becker responded with a procedure to force the amendment forward -- a discharge petition is a House procedure which once it gains enough votes (51%) forces the majority leader to bring a bill to the floor for an up-and-down vote. 
-- as long as he could raise 213 representatives' signatures.  He received the backing of the American Legion, the Lions and other groups.  Constitutional Prayer Amendment Inc. was formed by Conrad Hilton, 13 Governors, Jackie Robinson, Cardinal Spelman, Bishop Pike and William Randolph Hearst to force the amendment out of the committee. 
Celler held hearings lasting six weeks to gain time to build support.  Over time Celler got the backing of church leaders who argued against the amendments:
  • Threat to the 1st amendment
  • Waters down the work of the churches. 
Religious publications: Christian Science Monitor, Christian Century; agreed with the church leaders against Becker. 
By week three of the hearings, popular opinion shifted across to align with the church leaders.  By week six, Celler concluded the Becker amendment will fail. 

Spiritual Mobilization responded to the killing of the Becker Amendment by forming a national lay committee of the National Council of Churches (NCC) which denounced the NCC for proclamations about "secular affairs." 

There was a similar strategy to get the Senate to pass an amendment.  Jim Eastland was in charge of the Senate Judiciary Committee and was interested in proceeding.  But many Senators accepted the Supreme Court's arguments.  Everett Dirksen of Illinois took up the cause, arguing popular discontent with the Supreme Court decision was building.  His amendment was cosponsored by 47 other Senators.  And conservative entertainers promoted the amendment through Pat Boone's Project Prayer Program.

Senate hearings tested who represented the laity.  Was it the church leaders or politicians?  The Senate rejected the amendment.  But conservative clerics concluded their views were being undermined by liberals. 

Which side are you on?
Kruse notes how George Wallace's presidential campaign bumper stickers included:
  • Wallace for President
  • One Nation Under God
Wallace was leveraging Richard Nixon and Billy Graham's political strategy.  Nixon was convinced of the power of aligning with religion having been Eisenhower's vice president and seen Graham's work first hand.  He asserted that he lost the 1960 presidential race because Life did not publish Billy Graham's endorsement of him.  Graham assisted Nixon's 1968 run for president with an open endorsement.  They worked together to promote Nixon's campaign. 

When Nixon became President, Graham was made part of the White House team.  Graham focused on associating piety and patriotism with the Right.  Nixon and Graham's words were interchangeable. 

Nixon made a conscious calculated use of religion as a political instrument.  This pushed Americans apart reversing Eisenhower's inclusiveness. 

Nixon's inauguration was highly religious.  The Religious Observance Committee set the tone, driven by Judge Leedom the former leader of Vereide's International Council for Christian Leadership.  It:
  • Called for religious observances in all churches and synagogues in the week before the inauguration. 
  • Distributed a 'conservative' collection of prayers and readings.  These:
    • Called on God, obedience and subservience to government
    • Complained about anti-war protestors
    • Focused on Law and Order
  • Made a full scale service (multi denominational) part of the inauguration program.  Other presidents had prayed in private. 
Billy Graham provided a long invocation declaring:
Nixon delivered a sermon:
  • Linked to Graham's prayer. 
  • Referencing God. 
J Willard Marriot was the inaugural committee chair. 

Nixon repeated Graham's themes a week later at the National Prayer Breakfast.  But Nixon revealed he was acting.  He commented to an aid "He'd simply fed the crowd some church stuff to keep them happy."  Some of the people were worried about all the pomp and uniforms. 

Nixon and Graham setup Sunday services at the White House: 
The White House noted the Sunday Services were the most popular activities they hosted.  They ran for Nixon's full Presidency.  Nixon used the services as a sanctuary and conservative rallying point as his expansion of the war into Cambodia increased the level of protests. 

The press responded negatively to the political nature of the prayer services.  The Washington Post challenged the sincerity of "White House Religion."

Religious leaders also started to criticize them.  Reinhold Niebuhr argued Nixon had broken the first article of the bill of rights. 

Nixon looked to hold a Pro-America Christian Rally for the Silent Majority on the 4th of July.  He leveraged a Billy Graham Crusade.  It was difficult, or illegal, to disrupt a religious service.  Graham pretended the rally was not political.  It was a huge success -- the largest public gathering that had been held in the state of Tennessee. It was very beneficial to Nixon. 

Graham followed the crusade with 'Honor America Day', a Nixon rally with Bob Hope in Washington D.C. looking back nostalgically at the 1950s.  Marriot did the fund raising leveraging contributions from J. Howard Pew, Patrick Frawley and major corporations.  The Nixon administration had their advance man Ronald Walker mobilize the Silent Majority.  It was good practice for the election campaign two years later. 

Epilogue
Ronald Reagan accepted the Republican presidential nomination ten years after the Honor America Day.  Billy Graham gave the invocation to a white, middle class, conservative crowd.  Reagan added to the script.  "Only a divine providence could have created the U.S.A."  He began the crusade with a silent prayer and then said "God bless America." 

Reagan's political hero had been FDR is President Franklin Delano Roosevelt.  He is notable for his contributions to the US CAS:
  • New Deal strategies including:
    • SSA
    • FFDCA 
    • IRC
  • Lend-lease which pushed the US and Japan into World War 2 and helped the US to become the world's predominant military power.  
  • Bretton Woods's agreement which economically constrained any politically driven collapse of the world economy after the war and helped the US to become the world's predominant economic power.  
but he became captivated by Eisenhower and shifted to being a Republican.  Reagan leveraged Eisenhower themes.  Reagan/Bush called for a constitutional amendment to restore prayer in schools.  But it was blocked in Congress.  They wanted to win votes of the religious right associated with Jerry Falwell at all costs.  Religious conservatives rallied to Reagan. 

Reagan didn't attend church often but he never missed a National Prayer Breakfast.  He pushed to make them partisan.  They rallied about:
  • God being expelled from the class room. 
  • Bible reading
  • Abortion
  • School prayer
In his 1983 reelection Reagan aimed to energize the religious right.  Christian conservative publishers printed books about Regan being divinely ordained.  Reagan criticized the Supreme Court on on school prayer.  Reagan asserted "politics and morality provides rules for identifying right from wrong.  It develops in stages with children using play to work out rules of appropriate behavior.  Kohlberg's 1950s experiments using children led him to conclude moral judgement is a cognitive process that develops in three stages.  Sapolsky raises issues with the framework: Its a model, It does not apply to other cultures, Intuition & emotion are as significant as cognition, Moral reasoning doesn't predict moral actions; and notes the capacity of the frontal cortex to regulate emotions and behavior is far more predictive.  The marshmallow test, performed on three to six year olds, actually predicted their subsequent SAT scores at high school, social success and lack of aggression, and forty years on more PFC activation during a frontal task and a lower BMI!  Jonathan Haidt argues people's moral decisions are rationalizations rather than using reasoning. 
are inseparable." 

George H. W. Bush tried to follow Reagan's lead.  He was friendly with Billy Graham.  Graham started a crusade to support Bush.  Bush obtained the nomination but inherited a party tightly linked to the religious right. 

Bill Clinton was a proudly religious Southern Baptist linked to reverend Robert Schuller.  And Al. Gore was a Baptist too.  They forced Bush to retreat from his Reagan like position. 

George W. Bush was a born again Christian: 
  • Like Clinton he could discuss faith openly. 
  • Promoting Compassionate Conservatism.  But the main stream conservatives took issue with his position. 
  • Who walked the talk, criticizing conservatives in Congress for balancing the budget on the backs of the poor. 
  • He went to a Mosque soon after 9/11 and exclaimed "God bless us all." 
In 2002 a Federal court disallowed -One Nation Under God- in a 2000 case Newdow v. Elk Grove Unified School District, but the Supreme Court dodged the issue arguing Newdow had no right to stand. 


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Kruse documents the inception, growth and success of Corporate America's strategic invention of Judeo Christian America.  It serves as a powerful illustration of the impact of strategy on our lives. 




























































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