Libertarianism
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
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The nature of libertarian systems

Summary
H. A. Hayek compares and contrasts collectivism and libertarianism. 
The road to serfdom
In Hayek's book 'The road to serfdom' he characterizes the nature of planning.  The development of totalitarian states in the twentieth century is shown to be a natural outcome of collectivist central planning.   In contrast Hayek suggests that 19th century liberal governments demonstrated the benefits of libertarian philosophy with freedom of choice replacing collectivism's fairness in allocation of productive wealth is schematically useful information and its equivalent, schematically useful energy, to paraphrase Beinhocker.  It is useful because an agent has schematic strategies that can utilize the information or energy to extend or leverage control of the cognitive niche.  
as the key goal. 

Hayek demonstrates two key problems with central planning:
  1. It is all but impossible for the planners to be aware of the actual situation which they are attempting to plan.
  2. The prioritization process which decides the allocation of resources is inherently unfair.  Some planner must be arbitrarily given the power to specify the priorities.  The specifications are concrete favoring one person over another. 
The two problems are shown to create a race to the bottom where political power will most likely be passed to nationalistic repressive politicians. 

In contrast Hayek presents the 19th century western democracies as bastions of freedom.  Further he argues that this was due to the separation of economics from governmental control based on markets.  He warns that democracies put their freedom at risk when they attempt to optimize the democratic process with government driven plans and prioritization of the economy. 

The application of
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS theory
represents the economy as a set of
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
niches in broad alignment with Hayek's ideas.  For example the advanced western economies show an emergent build out of
Tools and the businesses that produce them have evolved dramatically.  W Brian Arthur shows how this occurred.
competing technological domains
.  But collectivism is only one of the ways in which freedom can become limited in an emergent economy.  Indeed the record of the 19th century western democracies was not so pristine as Hayek contends. 
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
Adaptive agents
develop
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
strategies
which when successful tend to create
This page reviews the inhibiting effect of the value delivery system on the expression of new phenotypic effects within an agent. 
extended alignment
.  The strategies which have been used broadly include the:
The historic foundation of the 19th century liberal democracies is also
Sven Beckert describes the historic transformation of the growing, spinning, weaving, manufacture of cotton goods and their trade over time.  He describes the rise of a first global commodity, its dependence on increasing: military power, returns for the control points in the value delivery system(VDS), availability of land and labor to work it including slaves. 

He explains how cotton offered the opportunity for industrialization further amplifying the productive capacity of the VDS and the power of the control points.  This VDS was quickly copied.  The increased capacity of the industrialized cotton complex adaptive system (CAS) required more labor to operate the machines.  Beckert describes the innovative introduction of wages and the ways found to mobilize industrial labor. 

Beckert describes the characteristics of the industrial cotton CAS which made it flexible enough to become globally interconnected.  Slavery made the production system so cost effective that all prior structures collapsed as they interconnected.  So when the US civil war blocked access to the major production nodes in the American Deep South the CAS began adapting. 

Beckert describes the global reconstruction that occurred and the resulting destruction of the traditional ways of life in the global countryside.  This colonial expansion further enriched and empowered the 'western' nation states.  Beckert explains how other countries responded by copying the colonial strategies and creating the opportunities for future armed conflict among the original colonialists and the new upstarts. 

Completing the adaptive shifts Beckert describes the advocates for industrialization in the colonized global south and how over time they joined the global cotton CAS disrupting the early western manufacturing nodes and creating the current global CAS dominated by merchants like Walmart pulling goods through a network of clothing manufacturers, spinning and weaving factories, and growers competing with each other on cost. 

Following our summary of Beckert's book, RSS comments from the perspective of CAS theory.  The transformation of disconnected peasant farmers, pastoral warriors and their lands into a supply chain for a highly profitable industrial CAS required the development over time: of military force, global transportation and communication networks, perception and representation control networks, capital stores and flows, models, rules, standards and markets; along with the support at key points of: barriers, disruption, and infrastructure and evolved amplifiers.  The emergent system demonstrates the powerful constraining influence of extended phenotypic alignment. 

shown
by Beckert to be based on militarism, slavery and coercion of their own population base. 

It is clear that Hayek's strategies do not guarantee freedom.  The solution seen in biology also presents a dilemma.  It involves deadly force needed to capture the most abundant niches which are required to support the
E. O. Wilson & Bert Holldobler illustrate how bundled cooperative strategies can take hold.  Various social insects have developed strategies which have allowed them to capture the most valuable available niches.  Like humans they invest in specialization and cooperate to subdue larger, well equipped competitors. 
super-organism's
relatively costly operations.  There seems no alternative for man since his collaborative within group strategies emerge from the dynamics of between group conflict, and within group cooperation. 
























  


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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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