Promoting longevity
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
Primary Navigation

Promoting longevity

Summary
Friedman and Martin leverage the lifelong data collected on 1,528 bright individuals selected by Dr. Lewis Terman starting in 1921, to understand what aspects of the subjects' lives significantly affected their longevity.  Looking broadly across each subject's: Personality, Education, Parental impacts, Energy levels, Partnering, Careers, Religion, Social networks, Gender, Impact from war and trauma; Friedman and Martin are able to develop a set of model pathways, which each individual could be seen to select and travel along.  Some paths led to the traveler having a long life.  Others were problematic.  The models imply that the US is the United States of America.   approach to health and wellness is a health care oriented employer based strategy for reducing health care costs and encouraging wellbeing.  Wellbeing has traditionally been a focus of public health.   should focus more on supporting the development and selection of beneficial pathways

Following our summary of their arguments RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio comments from the perspective of CAS theory.  The pathways are most applicable to bright individuals with the resources and support necessary to make and leverage choices they make.  Striving to enter and follow a beneficial pathway seems sensible but may be impossible for individuals trapped in a collapsing network, starved of resources. 

The Longevity Project
In Howard Friedman and Leslie Martin's book 'The Longevity Project' they describe the findings of their research on longevity.   They leveraged the data initially gathered by Dr. Lewis Terman was a Stanford University psychology professor.  His son was Fred Terman.  Lewis Terman was very interested in what drove achievement.  He developed:
  • Key aspects of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Quotient. 
  • Terman study of intellectual leadership. 
  • Eugenics movement.
at Stanford University from the 1920s to his death in 1956 and subsequently by other Stanford collaborators.

Friedman and Martin explain that long lived subjects' data displayed certain constellations of habits and social lives that were relevant to long health.  The conclusions can be used to allow people to rethink long-term effects of parenting decisions to support increased future health, happiness is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.   and wellbeing is described by Angus Deaton as all the things that are good for a person:
  • Material wellbeing includes income and wealth and its measures: GDP, personal income and consumption.  It can be traded for goods and services which recapture time.  Material wellbeing depends on investments in:
    • Infrastructure
      • Physical
      • Property rights, contracts and dispute resolution
    • People and their education
    • Capturing of basic knowledge via science.  
    • Engineering to turn science into goods and services and then continuously improve them. 
  • Physical and psychological wellbeing are represented by health and happiness; and education and the ability to participate in civil society through democracy and the rule of law.  Life expectancy as a measure of population health, highly weights reductions in child mortality. 
, based on meaningful, successful, productive lives. 

Personality and long-life: who stays well?
Friedman and Martin stress that risk factors and protective shields do not occur in isolation.  Instead they bunch together in pathways.  These pathways are complex and adaptive with surprising twists.  Focusing on each individual's pathways yielded insights and understanding. 

Friedman and Martin lament that
The complexity and problems of the US Health network is described in terms of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. 

The network:
  • Is deeply embedded in the US nation state. It reflects the conflict between two opposing visions for the US.  The emergence of a parasitic elite further constrains the choices. 
  • Is incented to focus on localized competition generating massive & costly duplication of services within a historically ineffective physician based health care instead of proven public health strategies.  This process drives increasing research & treatment complexity and promotes hope for each new technological breakthrough. 
  • Is amplified by the legislatively structured separation and indirection of service development, provision, reimbursement and payment. 
  • Is impacted by the different political strategies for managing the increasing cost of health care for retirees.  
  • Is presented with acute and chronic problems to respond to.  As currently setup the network is tuned to handle acute problems.  The interactions with patients tend to be transactional. 
  • Includes a legislated health insurance infrastructure which is:
    • Costly and inefficient
    • Structured around yearly contracts which undermine long-term health goals and strategies.  
  • Is supported by increasingly regulated HCIT which offers to improve data sharing and quality but has entrenched commercial EHR products deep within the hospital systems. 
modern medicine
does not focus on pathways.  Health care has little to offer to help understand the optimum pathway a person should select for a healthy and long life.  The germ theory of medicine is a platform of related discoveries in microbiology by Koch (postulates developed from 1870s) and Pasteur (1880) and antiseptic surgery by Joseph Lister (1879).  These innovations were made necessary by the stresses of the industrial revolution 
encouraged a focus on acute infections, their diagnosis and treatment.  More helpful are: Health psychology, Genetics, Medical sociology, Life course epidemiology and Life span development; which look at the whole person and their social network.  Personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
is an excellent predictor of health and longevity.  But the relationship is counterintuitive.  And personality is not set in stone.  When the person is traveling along a problematic pathway they can, with substantial effort, change course to a better outcome. 

There are discreet personality types: agreeable, worrying, careful, sociable, creative, cheerful, moody; with these Terman developed a number of scales: Sociability, Conscientiousness, Social dependability.  

Long live the prudent and persistent
Initial statistical findings clearly showed that the strongest childhood personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
predictor of longevity was conscientiousness (A child who was obsessive, prudent, persistent, well organized and not carefree).  Further testing on new subjects using modern tests gave consistent results from the two methodologies. 

Adult conscientiousness was also a predictor of longevity.  By the end of the 20th century the unconscientious were dying in large numbers because:
  1. Conscientious act to protect themselves
  2. High serotonin is a neurotransmitter.  it is:
    • Inversely associated with: human impulsive, cricket, mollusk, crustacean; aggression.  Low levels of serotonin are associated with impulsive aggression ranging from psychological measures of hostility to overt violence and cognitive impulsivity and impulsive suicide. 
    • Nearly all synthesized in the Raphe nucleus.  Tryptophan hydroxylase makes serotonin from the amino-acid tryptophan.  Monoamine oxidase degrades serotonin.  The serotonin receptor binds serotonin to initiate cross membrane signalling.  The serotonin transporter actively removes serotonin from synapses.  Reuptake is inhibited by SSRIs.  Variants of the genes coding for these various enzymes alter the strength of their effects. 
    • Increasing serotonin signalling does not lessen impulsiveness in normal subjects but did in those prone to impulsivity.  However, such experiments are fraught with complexity:
      • Transient changes induced by drugs may adjust the immediate levels of serotonin but may not demonstrate structural effects. 
      • Gene variants likely produce structural changes in the developing brain.  
      • Effects monitored in experiments are often tiny.  
      • Behavioral changes: Violence, Arson, Exhibitionism; seen in different test subjects may be difficult to compare.  
      • Monoamine oxidase has high gene/environment interactions undermining heritability estimates.  Its gene promotor is regulated by stress and glucocorticoids.  So non genetic factors such as childhood adversity and adult provocation appear to be significant. 
    levels correlate with conscientiousness and biological health. 
  3. Conscientiousness resulted in better situations and relationships. 
People's strategies do shift over time.  Increasing conscientiousness is best.  Unconscientious can change patterns and habits when motivated by:
  • Liking work (pride and responsibility)
  • Entering healthier social environments and relationships. 

Chronic disease is correlated with unconscientiousness.  Unconscientious subjects suffered from more:

Friendly & Convivial: healthy or trivial
Terman developed a sociability index for his subjects based on their childhood tendency to prefer being around others and:
  • Popular
  • Leader
  • Fond of large groups
Terman concluded that scientists were at one pole of this index - unsocial. 

Over decades the sociable children do not live longer.  Instead the data shows:
  • Scientists outlive non-scientists - because of their stable jobs, long lasting marriages and responsible work practices
  • Sociable people had more tendencies to develop unhealthy behaviors, which held up over time.  Sociability led to:
    • More drinking
    • More smoking
    • An environment which encouraged these habits. 
  • Emotional sociability was often detrimental:
    • The ability to communicate emotion made these people successful in leadership, sales and persuasion.  But these roles can become associated with unhealthy behaviors just listed.  It depends who they choose to party with. 

Happiness & Health?  A cheery conundrum
Cheerful and optimistic children are less likely to live to an old age than their staid, sober counterparts.  Friedman and Martin coded the hobbies based on risk, is an assessment of the likelihood of an independent problem occurring.  It can be assigned an accurate probability since it is independent of other variables in the system.  As such it is different from uncertainty. 
.  A happy-go-lucky strategy had a dangerous disregard for risk. 

Offsetting this risk optimists are likely to persist with their goals.  They can promote health preserving behaviors.  But there is a tendency to ignore real threats like smoking, over-eating or hypertension is high blood pressure.  It is directly associated with death rate due to pressure induced damage to the left ventricle and in general to cardiovascular diseases.  Treated with antihypertensives: Diuretics, Calcium channel blockers, Angiotensin receptor blockers or Beta blockers.  

Senior citizens appear highly optimistic.  But they often have good reason to be, in the moment. 

Friedman and Martin checked if neurotic subjects were unhealthy.  The result was complex, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos 
.  A moody personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
in general impacts health and longevity.  Women who were classed as moody tended to die younger.  This risk was exacerbated by lack of conscientiousness.   Men who worried tended to live longer!  The tendency to worry later in life offset the typical risk taking of males and resulted in these males acting to take better care of themselves. 

Having an agreeable nature led to a happy life but was not associated with longevity.  These people can be coerced into doing risky things by others. 

Friedman and Martin note that activities directly associated with happiness is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.   are also associated with longevity:
  • Watch less television
  • Spend time with friends
  • Go for walks
  • Help others
  • Take on new challenges
They argue that the longevity association is indirect and comes from following a path that supports and encourages doing these things routinely.  Some happy people don't do that. 

Catastrophic thinking: The fates of chicken littles
Catastrophizers bring trouble onto themselves:
  • Can't face problems
  • Cause upheaval in relationships
  • More often than other types, catastrophizers died of:
    • Accidents
    • Violence
    • Blame themselves and commit suicide
Friedman and Martin note that catastrophizing is a way of thinking about what happens to you.  So it can be changed. 

Women may commit suicide when impacted by:
Catastrophizing men committed suicide because they had not achieved all they had hoped.  They felt something important was missing from their lives, which were not worth living.  By clever use of control groups Friedman and Martin showed there were two key indicators of danger:
  1. Perturbation:
    • Agitation
    • Disturbance
    • Lack of composure
    • Markers of poor mental health:
      • Poor relationship with parents
      • Lack of success in life
      • Depression
      • Alcoholism
      • Instability
  2. Lethality:
    • Anticipated trouble
    • Premonitions of death
    • Disappointments
In contrast the long lived:
  • Felt good about their actions
  • Regretted inactions
  • Did not think about death
  • Conscientiousness helps because:
    • Less likely to catastrophize
    • Cooperate with help and medical treatments.  It was noted that even in a group taking a Placebo the conscientious recovered better. 
Friedman and Martin suggest that catastrophizers should:
  • Get help
  • Recognize thoughts as being thoughts.  If start to catastrophize can say 'stop', or review the worst case outcome. 
  • Write a diary including:
    • Good thoughts that happened
    • Dismiss catastrophizing
    • Write logical plans for tomorrow

Childhood & School days: Head start, early finish
Early health indications did not typically reflect overall longevity of the Terman study subjects.  But no Terman child was very ill or traumatized while young. 
Breast feeding did not have a significant effect on longevity. 
Poisons and malnutrition is unbalanced nourishment that causes health problems.  Cystic Fibrosis can result in failure to deploy the enzymes necessary to effectively digest food inducing malnutrition.  Starvation can take different forms: Kwashiorkor, Marasmus; even in identical twins.  Microbiome differences have been implicated in some of these starvation cases in research by Jeff Gordon's lab carried out in Malawi.  Gordon found that a Malawian starvation diet and specific set of gut bacteria caused weight loss in mice.  The poor diet induces changes in susceptible gut flora and undermine the host's immune system.  Harmful infections then further disrupt the flora and absorption by the gut wall.  A cascade occurs resulting in collapse of the prior microbiome and stabilization with one that repeatedly results in Kwashiorkor. 
do translate to long term health threats. 

Early education was complex.  Age matching and start time of
Reading and writing present a conundrum.  The reader's brain contains neural networks tuned to reading.  With imaging a written word can be followed as it progresses from the retina through a functional chain that asks: Are these letters? What do they look like? Are they a word? What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? What does it mean?  Dehaene explains the importance of education in tuning the brain's networks for reading as well as good strategies for teaching reading and countering dyslexia.  But he notes the reading networks developed far too recently to have directly evolved.  And Dehaene asks why humans are unique in developing reading and culture. 

He explains the cultural engineering that shaped writing to human vision and the exaptations and neuronal structures that enable and constrain reading and culture. 

Dehaene's arguments show how cellular, whole animal and cultural complex adaptive system (CAS) are related.  We review his explanations in CAS terms and use his insights to link cultural CAS that emerged based on reading and writing with other levels of CAS from which they emerge. 

reading
did not affect longevity. 

Terman children were selected for intelligence enables the achievement of goals in the face of obstacles.  The goals are sub-goals of genes' survival and reproduction and include:
  • Obtaining and eating food
  • Sex
  • Finding and maintaining shelter
  • Fighting for resources - in the preferred hunter gatherer environment loss of resources was critical while possession was often transient. 
  • Understanding the proximate environment
  • Securing the cooperation of others
.  They tended to have poor hand writing and were mediocre artists but they excelled at:
  • Literature
  • Composition
  • History
  • Science
  • Debate
Some started
Salman Khan argues that the evolved global education system is inefficient and organized around constraining and corralling students into accepting dubious ratings that lead to mundane roles.  He highlights a radical and already proven alternative which offers effective self-paced deep learning processes supported by technology and freed up attention of teams of teachers.  Building on his personal experience of helping overcome the unjustified failing grade of a relative Khan:
  • Iteratively learns how to teach: Starting with Nadia, Leveraging short videos focused on content, Converging on mastery, With the help of neuroscience, and filling in dependent gaps; resulting in a different approach to the mainstream method. 
  • Assesses the broken US education system: Set in its ways, Designed for the 1800s, Inducing holes that are hidden by tests, Tests which ignore creativity.  The resulting teaching process is so inefficient it needs to be supplemented with homework.  Instead teachers were encouraging their pupils to use his tools at home so they could mentor them while they attended school, an inversion that significantly improves the economics. 
  • Enters the real world: Builds a scalable service, Working with a real classroom, Trying stealth learning, At Khan Academy full time,  In the curriculum at Los Altos, Supporting life-long learning. 
  • Develops The One World Schoolhouse: Back to the future with a one room school, a robust teaching team, and creativity enabled; so with some catalysis even the poorest can become educated and earn credentials for current jobs. 
  • Wishes he could also correct: Summer holidays, Transcript based assessments, College education;
  • Concludes it is now possible to provide the infrastructure for creativity to emerge and to support risk taking. 

Following our summary of his arguments RSS frames them from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory.  Disruption is a powerful force for change but if its force is used to support the current teachers to adopt new processes can it overcome the extended phenotypic alignment and evolutionary amplifiers sustaining the current educational network? 

school
at the norm age of six.  Others started school earlier than six.  These early starters encountered problems throughout their lives:
  • The girls abused alcohol
  • The boys were not well adjusted as adults. 
The problem was starting formal education too young.  The children became good at what interested them but could not cope with boredom well which turned into little follow through on these other subjects. 

Higher education was not a good predictor of longevity.  But when coupled with parents who were successful and valued accomplishments it pushed the children to healthier pathways. 

Parental divorce: some were resilient
One third of the Terman subjects suffered parental death or divorce before the age of 21. 

Death of a parent had no effect on longevity.  But loss of a parent through divorce was devastating. 

Divorce altered pathways:

Running for their lives: Jocks vs. Nerds
Information does not equal action but it is often provided as a strategy to solve problems.  Friedman and Martin argue it is better to develop life time habits that action healthy goals. 

An active middle age correlates with a long life, although too much exercise can result in joint damage that was associated with premature death. 
The Terman data shows consistency in activity levels throughout life.  Parental assessments of their children's energy levels were predictive of activity levels of hobbies in later life.  Strategies for exercise must be tailored to the individual's energy level. 

Love, marriage & divorce: to sickness or to health?
Seventy percent of the subjects in the Terman study were married by 1940.  Ten percent were divorced. 

Married men lived longer.  No similar advantage was found for women. 

Friedman and Martin analyzed the marital history of the study group:
  • Married, divorced, remarried
    • Males:
      • Lived longer than married and the divorced males but not as long as those who stayed married. 
      • The longer they stay remarried the better is their overall longevity.  
  • Married
    • Males: lived longer than other sets of males
  • Married, divorced
    • Males: Less than one third lived long lives
    • Females: Lived as long as married women and longer than divorced men
  • Single
    • Males: outlive remarried men but not as long as steadily married men. 
    • Females: Only steadily married women lived longer. 
Friedman and Martin concluded that the:

Careers, success and satisfaction: thriving & surviving
Stress is a multi-faceted condition reflecting high cortisol levels.  Dr. Robert Sapolsky's studies of baboons indicate that stress helps build readiness for fight or flight.  As these actions occur the levels of cortisol return to the baseline rate.  A stressor is anything that disrupts the regular homeostatic balance.  The stress response is the array of neural and endocrine changes that occur to respond effectively to the crisis and reestablish homeostasis. 
  • The short term response to the stressor
    • activates the amygdala which: Stimulates the brain stem resulting in inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system and activation of the sympathetic nervous system with the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine deployed around the body, Activates the PVN which generates a cascade resulting in glucocorticoid secretion to: get energy to the muscles with increased blood pressure for a powerful response.  The brain's acuity and cognition are stimulated.  The immune system is stimulated with beta-endorphin and repair activities curtail.  But when the stressor is
  • long term: loneliness, debt; and no action is necessary, or possible, long term damage ensues.  Damage from such stress may only occur in specific situations: Nuclear families coping with parents moving in.  Sustained stress provides an evolved amplifier of a position of dominance and status.  It is a strategy in female aggression used to limit reproductive competition.  Sustained stress:
    • Stops the frontal cortex from ensuring we do the harder thing, instead substituting amplification of the individual's propensity for risk-taking and impairing risk assessment! 
    • Activates the integration between the thalamus and amygdala. 
      • Acts differently on the amygdala in comparison to the frontal cortex and hippocampus: Stress strengthens the integration between the Amygdala and the hippocampus, making the hippocampus fearful. 
      • BLA & BNST respond with increased BDNF levels and expanded dendrites persistently increasing anxiety and fear conditioning. 
    • Makes it easier to learn a fear association and to consolidate it into long-term memory.  Sustained stress makes it harder to unlearn fear by making the prefrontal cortex inhibit the BLA from learning to break the fear association and weakening the prefrontal cortex's hold over the amygdala.  And glucocorticoids decrease activation of the medial prefrontal cortex during processing of emotional faces.  Accuracy of assessing emotions from faces suffers.  A terrified rat generating lots of glucocorticoids will cause dendrites in the hippocampus to atrophy but when it generates the same amount from excitement of running on a wheel the dendrites expand.  The activation of the amygdala seems to determine how the hippocampus responds. 
    • Depletes the nucleus accumbens of dopamine biasing rats toward social subordination and biasing humans toward depression. 
    • Disrupts working memory by amplifying norepinephrine signalling in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala to prefrontal cortex signalling until they become destructive.  It also desynchronizes activation in different frontal lobe regions impacting shifting of attention. 
  • During depression, stress inhibits dopamine signalling. 
  • Strategies for stress reduction include: Mindfulness. 
is not always correlated with reduced longevity. 
Friedman and Martin assert:
Terman used a variety of indicators to identify career success.  He concluded about one fifth of the subjects had been highly successful and one fifth had been unsuccessful. 

Career stress had a complex relationship with success:
The unmotivated and unsuccessful were at greater mortality risk even if they worked rather than party.  The Terman men who lived long lives:
  • Had chosen their occupation,
  • Were ambitious and enjoyed the challenges of their work and
  • Considered work and family the most important aspects of their lives. High expectations, perseverance and a pattern of accomplishments rather than education increased longevity. 
Terman subject's personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
type when matched to Holland's occupation type (Artistic: actors, designers, musicians, artists; Realistic: Engineers, Firefighters, Pilots, Machinists, Veterinarians; Investigative: Economists, Professors, Chemists; Social: Clergy, nurses, teachers, counselors; Enterprising: Insurance, Politics, Sales; & Conventional: Administration, financial analysis, auditing) showed that matching could be a health risk.  Enterprising men who were assertive and persuasive were effective but the congruence enhanced poor health habit choices like drinking and smoking.  Conversely Social job and personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
congruence did result in living longer. 

Long life meets the Afterlife - Religion and health
World wide data suggests religious people live longer. 
In part this is because many religious people choose not to drink or smoke. 

For the Terman men religion did not affect longevity because family and career effects overwhelm religion.  Men depend on their wives to develop and sustain social realms. 
For the women religion was associated with living longer.  In part this was because religious women tended to be prudent, worriers, generous and unselfish.  But they were also focused on community involvement and social networks which are stabilizing for them.  The least religious women were less extroverted, less trusting and distrust are evolved responses to sham emotions.  During a friendship where no sham emotions have been detected trust will build up. 
, less likely to get and stay married and less likely to have children or help others. 

Confidants, networks & the power of social life
Friedman and Martin stress that having large social networks and helping others in those networks extended longevity over 25 years for these Terman subjects.  This is far more significant than health care's hugely expensive three or four year effects. 

Terman's social indicators included:
  • Frequency of visiting or communicating with relatives, friends and neighbors. 
  • Helping friends and neighbors
  • Community service
  • Satisfaction with friendships and contacts
  • Number of intimate relationships
  • Quality of relationships with family and relatives. 
Friedman and Martin ask what aspects of social links supports longevity?  They conclude:
  • Those who helped others directly, or had large social networks lived longer. 
  • Pets do not extend longevity! 
  • Social networks are the most important way to change life pathways. 

The gender gap in long life
Globally women outlive men.  But, Friedman and Martin note they have more health problems.  The pathways to health indicate why. 

Men die of: cardiovascular disease refers to:
  • Conditions where narrowed and blocked blood vessels result in angina, hypertension, CHD and heart attacks and hemorrhagic/ischemic strokes.  Mutations of the gene PCSK9 have been implicated in cardiovascular disease.  Rare families with dominant inheritence of the mutations have an overactive protein, very high levels of blood cholesterol and cardiac disease. Other rare PCSK9 mutations result in an 88% reduced risk from heart disease.  Inflammation is associated with cardiovascular disease (Aug 2017). 
, cancer is the out-of-control growth of cells, which have stopped obeying their cooperative schematic planning and signalling infrastructure.  It results from compounded: oncogene, tumor suppressor, DNA caretaker; mutations in the DNA.  In 2010 one third of Americans are likely to die of cancer.  Cell division rates did not predict likelihood of cancer.  Viral infections are associated.  Radiation and carcinogen exposure are associated.  Lifestyle impacts the likelihood of cancer occurring: Drinking alcohol to excess, lack of exercise, Obesity, Smoking, More sun than your evolved melanin protection level; all significantly increase the risk of cancer occurring (Jul 2016).  , suicide; and they typically die soon after their wives if widowed.  They more readily accept health issues without getting treatment. 

During the Terman study female roles were centered on the home which was a lower risk and confrontation environment.  They report health issues and get treatment. 
Masculine males (and females) had more risky hobbies.  Indeed as Females have adopted masculine roles, working in hostile and conflict riven environments and smoking and drinking; their longevity has started to reduce. 

Men's indirect network and social structures are impacted by their spouses' death.  Friedman and Martin note that a man of neurotic temperament will worry about themselves and so responds better to the death of their spouse than other types. 

Widowed women thrive. 

The toll of war & trauma: Why some survive 
Traumatic war experiences including: combat, reduced longevity, induced PTSD is post-traumatic stress disorder, an induced level of stress that is so troubling to the brain that it avoids processing it, change that is necessary if the stress is to be dissipated by the normal brain processes.  The hippocampus loses volume.  The amygdala increases in volume and is hyperactive.  As a result it remains in a heightened state, resulting in fear of recall and further stress.  It is now being realized that PTSD can be introduced into patients by traumatic treatment regimens such as ICU procedures.  Traumatic head injuries, seen in athletes and soldiers can be reflected in PTSD and can subsequently become associated with prion based dementia.   and depression is a debilitating state which is facilitated by genetic predisposition - for example genes coding for relatively low serotonin levels; and an accumulation of traumatic events.  There is evidence of shifts in the sleep/wake cycle in affected individuals (Dec 2015).  The affected person will experience a pathological sense of loss of control, prolonged sadness, irritability, sleep disturbances, loss of appetite, and inability to experience pleasure.  It affects 12% of men and 20% of women.  It appears to be associated with androgen deprivation therapy treatment for prostate cancer (Apr 2016).  Chronic stress depletes the nucleus accumbens of dopamine, biasing humans towards depression.  Depression easily leads to following unhealthy pathways: drinking, overeating; which increase the risk of heart disease.   It has been associated with an aging related B12 deficiency (Sep 2016).  During depression, stress mediates inhibition of dopamine signalling.  There is an association between depression and particular brain regions: Hippocampal dendrite and spine number reductions, Dorsal raphe nucleus linked to loneliness, Abnormalities of the ACC.  Childhood adversity can increase depression risk by linking recollections of uncontrollable situations to overgeneralizations that life will always be terrible and uncontrollable.  Treatments include: CBT, UMHS depression management.  As of 2010 drug treatments take weeks to facilitate a response & many patients do not respond to the first drug applied, often prolonging the agony.   Genomic predictions of which treatment will be effective have not been possible because: Not all clinical depressions are the same, a standard definition of drug response is difficult;; increase aggressiveness and hostility and cardiovascular disease refers to:
  • Conditions where narrowed and blocked blood vessels result in angina, hypertension, CHD and heart attacks and hemorrhagic/ischemic strokes.  Mutations of the gene PCSK9 have been implicated in cardiovascular disease.  Rare families with dominant inheritence of the mutations have an overactive protein, very high levels of blood cholesterol and cardiac disease. Other rare PCSK9 mutations result in an 88% reduced risk from heart disease.  Inflammation is associated with cardiovascular disease (Aug 2017). 
and other illnesses. 
The depression did not cause the heart disease is cardiovascular disease which refers to:
  • Conditions where narrowed and blocked blood vessels result in angina, hypertension, CHD and heart attacks and hemorrhagic/ischemic strokes.  Mutations of the gene PCSK9 have been implicated in cardiovascular disease.  Rare families with dominant inheritence of the mutations have an overactive protein, very high levels of blood cholesterol and cardiac disease. Other rare PCSK9 mutations result in an 88% reduced risk from heart disease.  Inflammation is associated with cardiovascular disease (Aug 2017). 
directly.  Instead the depression encouraged adoption of a risky life pathway with unhealthy habits, impaired social relations and a weakened capacity to cope with stress is a multi-faceted condition reflecting high cortisol levels.  Dr. Robert Sapolsky's studies of baboons indicate that stress helps build readiness for fight or flight.  As these actions occur the levels of cortisol return to the baseline rate.  A stressor is anything that disrupts the regular homeostatic balance.  The stress response is the array of neural and endocrine changes that occur to respond effectively to the crisis and reestablish homeostasis. 
  • The short term response to the stressor
    • activates the amygdala which: Stimulates the brain stem resulting in inhibition of the parasympathetic nervous system and activation of the sympathetic nervous system with the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine deployed around the body, Activates the PVN which generates a cascade resulting in glucocorticoid secretion to: get energy to the muscles with increased blood pressure for a powerful response.  The brain's acuity and cognition are stimulated.  The immune system is stimulated with beta-endorphin and repair activities curtail.  But when the stressor is
  • long term: loneliness, debt; and no action is necessary, or possible, long term damage ensues.  Damage from such stress may only occur in specific situations: Nuclear families coping with parents moving in.  Sustained stress provides an evolved amplifier of a position of dominance and status.  It is a strategy in female aggression used to limit reproductive competition.  Sustained stress:
    • Stops the frontal cortex from ensuring we do the harder thing, instead substituting amplification of the individual's propensity for risk-taking and impairing risk assessment! 
    • Activates the integration between the thalamus and amygdala. 
      • Acts differently on the amygdala in comparison to the frontal cortex and hippocampus: Stress strengthens the integration between the Amygdala and the hippocampus, making the hippocampus fearful. 
      • BLA & BNST respond with increased BDNF levels and expanded dendrites persistently increasing anxiety and fear conditioning. 
    • Makes it easier to learn a fear association and to consolidate it into long-term memory.  Sustained stress makes it harder to unlearn fear by making the prefrontal cortex inhibit the BLA from learning to break the fear association and weakening the prefrontal cortex's hold over the amygdala.  And glucocorticoids decrease activation of the medial prefrontal cortex during processing of emotional faces.  Accuracy of assessing emotions from faces suffers.  A terrified rat generating lots of glucocorticoids will cause dendrites in the hippocampus to atrophy but when it generates the same amount from excitement of running on a wheel the dendrites expand.  The activation of the amygdala seems to determine how the hippocampus responds. 
    • Depletes the nucleus accumbens of dopamine biasing rats toward social subordination and biasing humans toward depression. 
    • Disrupts working memory by amplifying norepinephrine signalling in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala to prefrontal cortex signalling until they become destructive.  It also desynchronizes activation in different frontal lobe regions impacting shifting of attention. 
  • During depression, stress inhibits dopamine signalling. 
  • Strategies for stress reduction include: Mindfulness. 

Non-traumatic war situations including: going overseas; was more impacting than staying in the USA. 

Conscientious people were less likely to be sent into harm's way!

The risk of developing depression was predicted by the combination of:
  • certain gene patterns
  • stressful challenges

Individual pathways to health & long life
Health is now being over medicalized, creating a confusion of health and disease.  People seek physician's solutions to difficulties traditionally handled by social networks. 
All human failings are being interpreted as diseases. 

There are only a few things that are reliably known to be directly and consistently bad for health:

Instead of holistic or people oriented strategies each problem is viewed as a discrete disease to be studied so that a treatment can be developed.  But this approach results in side effects from tests, treatments, medical errors and the huge cost impacts. 

There were already effective, but increasingly overlooked, remedies. The paths to long life can be reached if you understand your personality differs in at least five key ways:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains energy from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
and its implications, you build a social network and iterate towards the best paths for you:

Epilogue - Long life & public health.  What society should do
Friedman and Martin note that policy makers and lay people miss-understand health.  Both:
  • Overestimate the importance of heredity.  That under values the pathway each individual selects. 
  • Assume that lists of health recommendations have a significant effect on health outcomes
The basis of health and longevity are complex, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos 
:
They stress that simple advice like 'avoid fat' is flawed. 

Friedman and Martin see a strong mental-physical health connection.  While policy assumes:
  • Most people are healthy
  • When get ill have trained health care network to treat them. 
Instead Friedman and Martin argue:
  • Conscientious & goal oriented citizens who are well integrated into their communities are likely to be a society of health and long life. 
  • Few appreciate the extent to which mental health accompanies physical health. 
  • Few fully grasp the importance of helping to develop social patterns that let individuals find the appropriate way forward. 
Friedman and Martin's future work is focused on development is a phase during the operation of a CAS agent.  It allows for schematic strategies to be iteratively blended with environmental signals to solve the logistical issues of migrating newly built and transformed sub-agents.  That is needed to achieve the adult configuration of the agent and optimize it for the proximate environment.  Smiley includes examples of the developmental phase agents required in an emergent CAS.  In situations where parents invest in the growth and memetic learning of their offspring the schematic grab bag can support optimizations to develop models, structures and actions to construct an adept adult.  In humans, adolescence leverages neural plasticity, elder sibling advice and adult coaching to help prepare the deploying neuronal network and body to successfully compete. 
and implementation of policies that change our social and health care systems to support traveling healthier passages enabling good mental and physical health.  



This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS theory
highlights the impact of strategic
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
on the nature of our
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
national
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
networks
.  The health and longevity of people participating as
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
operating these networks can be set in context through these constraints:

Friedman and Martin provide a powerful argument for how to improve US health outcomes, using: Public health, Behavioral support and Social networking; to constrain the growth of the complex, comorbid epidemic is the rapid spread of infectious disease: AIDS (Oct 2016), Cholera (2010), Clostridium difficile (May 2015), Ebola, Influenza, Polio, SARS, Tuberculosis, Typhoid, Malaria, Yellow fever, Zika; to large numbers of people in a population within a short period of time -- two weeks or less.  Epidemics are studied and monitored by: NIAID, CDC, WHO; but are managed by states in the US.  Infection control escalation is supported by biocontainment units: Emory, Nebraska.  Once memes are included in the set of infectious schematic materials, human addictions can present as epidemics concludes Dr. Nora Volkow of the NIDA.  CEPI aims to ensure public health networks are effectively prepared for epidemics.  PHCPI aims to strengthen PCPs globally to improve responsiveness to epidemics.  GAVI helps catalyze the development and deployment of vaccines.  Sporadic investment in public health enables development of conditions for vector development: Mosquitos.  The increasing demands of the global population are altering the planet: Climate change is shifting mosquito bases, Forests are being invaded bringing wildlife and their diseases in contact with human networks.  Globalized travel acts as an infection amplifier: Ebola to Texas.  Health clinics have also acted as amplifiers: AIDS in Haiti, C. diff & MRSA infections enabled & amplified by hospitals.  Haiti earthquake support from the UN similarly introduced Cholera. 
that is undermining the health of much of the US population today. 




























































.
Market Centric Workshops
The Physics - Politics, Economics & Evolutionary Psychology
Politics, Economics & Evolutionary Psychology

Business Physics
Nature and nurture drive the business eco-system
Human nature
Emerging structure and dynamic forces of adaptation


integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
| Design |
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Program Management
| Home

Profiles | Papers | Glossary | E-mail us