Richard draws
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Richard draws

Summary
Richard Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
outlines a series of amusing vignettes, as he reviews his life story

Richard's personality describes the operation of the mind from the perspective of psychological models and tests based on them.  Early 'Western' models of personality resulted in a simple segmentation noting the tension between: individual desires and group needs, and developing models and performing actions.  Dualistic 'Eastern' philosophies promote the legitimacy of an essence which Riso & Hudson argue is hidden within a shell of personality types and is only reached by developing presence.  The logic of a coherent essence is in conflict with the evolved nature of emotions outlined by Pinker.  Terman's studies of personality identified types which Friedman and Martin link to healthy and unhealthy pathways.  Current psychiatric models highlight at least five key aspects:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains mental dynamism from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
encouraged him to patiently seek out fun: performing
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
Shewhart cycles
with electricity, in his childhood laboratory, and aligning theory, and practice through building and fixing radios.  Leonardo's life inspired him to try innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  It operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
, which he concluded was hard.  He played with the emotion are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
in communications, a skill which he used later at Caltech.  And he made a game of avoiding following orders at MITWorking during the holidays revealed the benefit of joining theory and practice. 

Feynman enrolled as a graduate student at Princeton, where the successful approach to science was just like his.  His approach was based on patience and fun: he used his home lab and other tools for qualitative exploration.  Overtime he added experimental techniques.  He would test the assertions in articles with amusing investigations; with his mind aligned by feelings of joy.  Everyone at Princeton heard he would want to be hypnotized.  He was driven to compare the challenges of complex subjects, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos
being taught at Princeton to his current pick.  In his summer recess he explored biology.  Gathering problems in challenging areas of science, and then picking one to solve, supported his creativity.  And his practical orientation and situation when growing up in Far Rockaway, supported his desire for choices and adolescent dislike for purely intellectual and cultural pursuits.  Being mostly self-taught, he developed different approaches to problems than the standard strategies provided by mass education. 

Richard saw his skill set as very different to that exhibited by his father.  But are they very different?

While Richard was at Princeton, America became concerned about the implications of the European war.  After a friend enlisted he decided to dedicate his summer holiday to helping the war effort.  Feynman got involved in the Manhattan Project, and went to Los Alamos where he experienced constraints, applied by: the military, the physics of the project, him on Niels Bohr; but was freed from them by Von Neumann, John was a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who published the earliest paper specifying architecture for digital computing.  It ensured this computing architecture was not patentable.  The architecture has a central processing unit (CPU), random access storage addressable by the CPU and a sequencer.  The architecture encourages a serial software architecture that matches the logic of the sequencer and processing operations on program and data.  Von Neumann, his history, computing architecture and some alternative architectures are reviewed by Melanie Mitchell.  .  The records & reports of the project were kept in filing cabinets.  Richard explored the weaknesses of the locks and safes deployed to secure these secrets.  Just after the war he was called up by the draft board for a medical but was rejected for being mentally unfit. 

After the war, Richard was asked to become a professor at Cornell.  He initially struggled in this role: Too young to match expectations, stressed by the demands of his new job and his recent experiences; until he adopted an approach that focused on fun.  He enjoyed knowing about numbers: using, learning about them and the tools to use them, and competing with others; to calculate, interpolate and approximate a value the fastest. 
Traveling to Buffalo in a light plane once a week to give a physics lecture before flying back the next morning wasn't much fun for Richard.  So he used the stipend to visit a bar after each lecture to meet beautiful women.  Richard liked bars and nightclubs, spending a summer in Albuquerque frequenting one, and later ones in Las Vegas, as he explored how to get the girls he drank with to sleep with him. 

Richard reflects on various times when he made government officials obey their parts of contracts: patent fees, limits on red tape;
 
Richard became frustrated with his life at Cornell, seeing more things that interested him on the sunny west coast at Caltech.  Both institutions, and Chicago, offered him incentives to help his decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
, but Richard began to find reevaluating the alternatives a waste of time and he saw risks, is an assessment of the likelihood of an independent problem occurring.  It can be assigned an accurate probability since it is independent of other variables in the system.  As such it is different from uncertainty. 
in a really high salary, deciding he would move to Caltech and stay there

Richard is invited to attend a scientific symposium in Japan.  Each of the US attendees is asked to learn a little Japanese.  Richard takes lessons, persists, can converse effectively, but stops when he finds the cultural parts of the language conflict with his individualism

Richard was unhappy with his achievements in physics.  He felt: slower than his peers, not keeping up or understanding the latest details, fearful is an emotion which prepares the body for time sensitive action: Blood is sent to the muscles from the gut and skin, Adrenalin is released stimulating: Fuel to be released from the liver, Blood is encouraged to clot, and Face is wide-eyed and fearful.  The short-term high priority goal, experienced as a sense of urgency, is to flee, fight or deflect the danger.  There are both 'innate' - really high priority learning - which are mediated by the central amygdala and learned fears which are mediated by the BLA which learns to fear a stimulus and then signals the central amygdala.  Tara Brach notes we experience fear as a painfully constricted throat, chest and belly, and racing heart.  The mind can build stories of the future which include fearful situations making us anxious about current ideas and actions that we associate with the potential future scenario.  And it can associate traumatic events from early childhood with our being at fault.  Consequent assumptions of our being unworthy can result in shame and fear of losing friendships.  The mechanism for human fear was significantly evolved to protect us in the African savanna.  This does not align perfectly with our needs in current environments: U.S. Grant was unusually un-afraid of the noise or risk of guns and trusted his horses' judgment, which mostly benefited his agency as a modern soldier. 
that he could not cope; as the community worked to understand the laws of beta decay.  But Martin Block pushed him to question the troubling parity premise.  Encouraged by Oppenheimer the community focused on parity and failures were discovered in a cascade of reports.  Richard attended a meeting where Lee & Yang discussed a failure and a theory to explain it.  Richard felt terrified and could not understand what they said.  His sister pushed him to change his attitude: act like a student having fun is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.  , read every line and equation of their paper; he would understand it.  And he did, as well as developing additional insights about what was happening and what still seemed conflicted.  He reported his ideas back to the community.  After Richard returned from Brazil he reviewed the confusion of facts with Caltech's experimental physicists who made him aware of Gell-mann abandoning another former premise of Beta decay.  Feynman realized his ideas were consistent: fully and simply describing the details of beta decay.  He had identified the workings of a fundamental law.  Years later he was awarded the Nobel prize for physics.  He was conflicted about the prize and attending the ceremony, but eventually enjoyed the trip, where he discussed cultural achievement with the Japanese ambassador. 

Richard was interested in the operation of the brain, modeling it on a digital computer.  He explored hallucinations and the reality of experiences

Richard lobbies for integrity in science

In aspects of his life that weren't focused directly on science, Richard was quirky.  He would tease those who asked for his help: pushing bargains to their logical conclusion; insisting on everyone keeping to their part of the agreement.  And he paid no attention to the logistical details of planning.  He loved percussion, playing: drums, bongos, baskets, tables, Frigideira; and became quite a success.  He eventually discovered art could be fun, and tried to express his joy at the underlying mathematical beauty of the physical world.  He had a great art teacher.  But he discovered although he could eventually draw well he did not understand art. 

Many of the artists he met were fakers, and even the powerful, who were interested in integrating art and science, did not understand either subject.  He found the situation was similar in other complex adaptive systems: philosophy, religion and economics; which he dabbled in for a while but found the strategies of other people practicing the study of such subjects made him angry is an emotion which protects a person who has been cheated by a supposed friend.  When the exploitation of the altruism is discovered, Steven Pinker explains, the result is a drive for moralistic aggression to hurt the cheater.  Anger is mostly experienced as a rapid wave that then quickly dissipates.  When it is repressed, for example by a strong moral sense (superego), it can sustain, inducing long term stress. 
and disturbed, so he avoided participating in them.  It seemed ironic that he was eventually asked to help in bringing culture to the physicists!

He discusses issues in teaching creative physics in Brazil.  He gets involved in the California public school text book selection process which he concluded was totally broken, but also reveals how his father provided him with a vision of how our world works, inspiring his interest in experimentation and physical theory. 

Following our summary of his main points, RSS is Rob's Strategy Studio reviews how his personality describes the operation of the mind from the perspective of psychological models and tests based on them.  Early 'Western' models of personality resulted in a simple segmentation noting the tension between: individual desires and group needs, and developing models and performing actions.  Dualistic 'Eastern' philosophies promote the legitimacy of an essence which Riso & Hudson argue is hidden within a shell of personality types and is only reached by developing presence.  The logic of a coherent essence is in conflict with the evolved nature of emotions outlined by Pinker.  Terman's studies of personality identified types which Friedman and Martin link to healthy and unhealthy pathways.  Current psychiatric models highlight at least five key aspects:
  • Extroversion-introversion - whether the person gains mental dynamism from socializing or retiring
  • Neuroticism-stability - does a person worry or are they calm and self-satisfied
  • Agreeableness-antagonism - is a person courteous & trusting or rude and suspicious
  • Conscientiousness-un-directedness - is a person careful or careless
  • Openness-non-openness - are they daring or conforming
, family and cultural is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
history supported his creative development from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS)
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
theory

 
"Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!"
In Richard Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
's book "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!", he annotates his life with fun stories that illustrate his passion for: science, faking, percussion, code breaking, safe cracking, beautiful women, learning (text books, making teachers), calling out pomposity, Japan; while also advocating for integrity in science, and revealing a little of what made him tick.  

11 Vitals
Richard Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was born in Far Rockaway in New York State in 1918, where he lived until 1935.  He then studied at MIT for four yearsHe moved to Princeton in 1939, where he became involved in the Manhattan project and married his first wife Arlene in 1941.  Between April 1943 and November 1946 he moved to Los Alamos during which time his wife was hospitalized with tuberculosis, consumption or otherwise TB, is mostly an airborn bacterial lung infection, but it can also infect the brain, kidneys and other parts of the body.  The only vaccine is still the BCG.  The deployment of antibiotics during the 1940s allowed effective treatment: Streptomycin.  In 1963 epidemiologist George Comstock realized why 30% of Alaskan adults were infected with TB - it grows slowly and is transmitted to other people before symptoms occur.  Treatment was expanded to all contacts of a person with symptoms, who tested positive for TB.  This strategy eradicated TB in the West, but was considered impractical in poor countries.  Diagnostic tools for TB are insufficient.  And because TB grows slowly in walled off pockets in the lungs it takes many months of treatment for antibiotics to eradicate the infection.  TB benefits from compromised hosts and has benefited from HIV/AIDS.  TB is also leveraging the plasmids that now carry immunity to all current antibiotics.  In 2016 it is estimated to latently infect two billion people.  9.6 million worldwide became infected in 2014.  1.5 million people will die from TB in 2016.  Deaths from the disease have fallen drastically since 2000.  TB has been halted or reversed in 16 of the 22 countries: India (Sep 2016, Infection base estimate increased Oct 2016), Vietnam, Indonesia; that have the majority of cases.  But it is still the infectious disease causing the most deaths world-wide.  In 2018 W.H.O. asserts there is a $3.5 billion shortfall in funding for TB public health control efforts, a gap that will double by 2023.  Nano scale drug delivery has the potential to push back on TB and is being actively researched (May 2016).   , from which she died in 1946.  Richard joined the staff at Cornell, where he was a professor from 1946 to 1951, when he started working at Caltech.  While at Caltech he married Mary Lou, his second wife, and Gwyneth, his third. 

FROM FAR ROCKAWAY TO MIT

15 He Fixes Radios by Thinking!
Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
enjoyed puzzles and
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
modeling
and experimenting with the physical world.  He used his persistence and
Carlo Rovelli resolves the paradox of time. 
Rovelli initially explains that low level physics does not include time:
  • A present that is common throughout the universe does not exist
  • Events are only partially ordered.  The present is localized
  • The difference between past and future is not foundational.  It occurs because of state that through our blurring appears particular to us
  • Time passes at different speeds dependent on where we are and how fast we travel
  • Time's rhythms are due to the gravitational field
  • Our quantized physics shows neither space nor time, just processes transforming physical variables. 
  • Fundamentally there is no time.  The basic equations evolve together with events, not things 
Then he explains how in a physical world without time its perception can emerge:
  • Our familiar time emerges
    • Our interaction with the world is partial, blurred, quantum indeterminate
    • The ignorance determines the existence of thermal time and entropy that quantifies our uncertainty
    • Directionality of time is real but perspectival.  The entropy of the world in relation to us increases with our thermal time.  The growth of entropy distinguishes past from future: resulting in traces and memories
    • Each human is a unified being because: we reflect the world, we formed an image of a unified entity by interacting with our kind, and because of the perspective of memory
    • The variable time: is one of the variables of the gravitational field.  With our scale we don't register quantum fluctuations, making space-time appear determined.  At our speed we don't perceive differences in time of different clocks, so we experience a single time: universal, uniform, ordered; which is helpful to our decisions

time
to investigate physical puzzles until he had solved them:

25 String Beans
Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
worked during his youth at his aunt's hotel.  While he was clerking, a girl left a copy of The Life of Leonardo, at the desk.  Feynman convinced her to let him read it.  He became inspired to create contraptions.  He built a series of tools that he hoped would help his early employers, but found his target user had additional requirements that devalued his inventions.  He concluded successful innovation is the economic realization of invention and combinatorial exaptation.  It operates across all CAS, being supported by genetic and cultural means.  Creativity provides the mutation and recombination genetic operators for the cultural process.  While highly innovative, monopolies: AT&T, IBM; usually have limited economic reach, constraining productivity.  This explains the use of regulation, or even its threat, that can check their power and drive the creations across the economy. 
is hard. 

30 Who Stole the Door?
At Seventeen, Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
went to MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  .  He was accepted by a Jewish fraternity where he practiced tricking other people with 'half-truths.'  He also developed further his interest in intellectual puzzles, becoming accepted into the discussions of other members by offering Bernoulli's equation succinctly describes his principle that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in static pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.  It takes different forms for different types of fluid flow: streamlined (((velocity**2)/2) + (acceleration due to gravity * elevation) + (pressure at the point/density) = constant) where the flow velocity, density etc. can't change over time, it is incompressible, and viscous friction is negligible.  And it only applies when no energy transfer occurs due to friction or dissipation and no heat is added. 
, which he had read about in the family encyclopedia and understood well enough to apply it, as the solution to their theoretical physics problem.  He observed that most people's knowledge is fragile, observing that they were not able to apply it to indirectly related problems; because - he concluded they don't learn by understanding.  He and the others judged Maurice Mayer a dumb joker who was never paying attention is a psychoanalytic defense, of denying unacceptable aspects of the self and simultaneously attributing them to others. 
, but when Feynman and the others were dumped in a wood and told to find their way back to MIT, it was Maurice that identified the best strategy, head in the direction of more telephone is a device for capture of spoken voice signals, for their encoding and transmission over a signalling medium, initially the telegraph, but subsequently: microwave, optical links and networks and wireless networks; and the receipt and playing of the signals in the receiver.  A variety of inventors saw the opportunity to add voice communications to the telegraph including: Alexander Graham Bell, Elisha Gray, Antonio Meucci; inducing significant litigation regarding the patent rights. 
lines. 

42 Latin or Italian?
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
found the emotional are low level fast unconscious agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The cerebellum and basal ganglia support the integration of emotion and motor functions, rewarding rhythmic movement.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
component of communications fun.  In particular, he would listen to Italian radio transmissions, and hear the emotion conveyed in the: contour describes the shape of a piece of music, describing shifts in frequency while ignoring the duration of the notes.  , the tempo describes the overall speed of a piece of music. 
, shifting loundness reflects the energy of a tone, but is an emergent psychological construct. 
and rhythms describes the duration of a series of notes and the way they group together. 
.  He developed the technique of saying 'Italian' sounding gibberish, where the message was conveyed in the musical is a complex emergent capability supported by sexual selection and generating pleasure.  It transforms the sensing of epiphenomena: Contour, Rhythm, Tempo, Timbre; to induce salient representations: Harmony, Key, Loudness, Melody, Meter, Pitch, and perceptions: Reverberation - echo; which allow musicians: Elton John, Elvis Presley; to show their fitness: superior coordination, creativity, adolescent leadership, stamina; true for birds and humans.  Levitin showed that listening to music causes a cascade of brain regions to become activated in a particular order: auditory cortex, frontal regions, such as BA44 and BA47, and finally the mesolimbic system, culminating in the nucleus accumbens.  And he found the cerebellum and basal ganglia were active throughout the session.  He argues music mimics some of the features of language and conveys some of the same emotions.  The brain regions pulse with the beat and predict the next one.  As the music is heard it is modeled and generates dopamine rewards for matching each beat and noting creative jokes in the rhythm.  The cerebellum finds pleasure in adjusting itself to stay synchronized. 
components, accompanied by gesturing.  People comprehended his intent and accepted the signal, is an emergent capability which is used by cooperating agents to support coordination & rival agents to support control and dominance.  In eukaryotic cells signalling is used extensively.  A signal interacts with the exposed region of a receptor molecule inducing it to change shape to an activated form.  Chains of enzymes interact with the activated receptor relaying, amplifying and responding to the signal to change the state of the cell.  Many of the signalling pathways pass through the nuclear membrane and interact with the DNA to change its state.  Enzymes sensitive to the changes induced in the DNA then start to operate generating actions including sending further signals.  Cell signalling is reviewed by Helmreich.  Signalling is a fundamental aspect of CAS theory and is discussed from the abstract CAS perspective in signals and sensors.  In AWF the eukaryotic signalling architecture has been abstracted in a codelet based implementation.  To be credible signals must be hard to fake.  To be effective they must be easily detected by the target recipient.  To be efficient they are low cost to produce and destroy. 
.  Especially children, who found what he said hilarious. 

45 Always Trying to Escape
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
didn't enjoy being required to study things that didn't interest him: language arts; while at MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  .  He escaped this
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraint
whenever possible by selecting: astronomy, philosophy; where he felt there would be a scientific aspect.  But was forced to write English criticisms of: Mill's essay on Liberty, Huxley's exploration of chalk, and Faust.  He did parodies of Mill (social liberty) and Huxley (exploration of dust) and, with suggestions from the rest of the fraternity, linked a discussion of the limited applicability of scientific techniques - which he was interested in, to an assertion that Faust represents spirit, Mephistopheles reason and Goethe is trying to show the limits of reason.  He felt vindicated since all three attempts to avoid writing about the real subject were credited for the assignment! 

Philosophy became a problem because Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
could not hear what the lecturer was saying.  He just drilled holes in the sole of his shoe to pass the time!  But there was an assignment about the details of the prior lectures.  Feynman decided to explore what happens as he fell asleep facilitates salient memory formation and removal of non-salient memories.  The five different stages of the nightly sleep cycles support different aspects of memory formation.  The sleep stages follow Pre-sleep and include: Stage one characterized by light sleep and lasting 10 minutes, Stage two where theta waves and sleep spindles occur, Stage three and Stage four together represent deep slow-wave sleep (SWS) with delta waves, Stage five is REM sleep; sleep cycles last between 90-110 minutes each and as the night progresses SWS times reduce and REM times increase.   Sleep includes the operation of synapse synthesis and maintenance through DNA based activity including membrane trafficking, synaptic vesicle recycling, myelin structural protein formation and cholesterol and protein synthesis.  Sleep also controls inflammation (Jan 2019)  Sleep deprivation undermines the thalamus & nucleus accumbens management of pain. 
.  He was interested in how we visualize objects and how this extended into dreams.  So he observed himself as he transitioned from being alert.  He found that he could see objects is a collection of: happenings, occurrences and processes; including emergent entities, as required by relativity, explains Rovelli.  But natural selection has improved our fitness by representing this perception, in our minds, as an unchanging thing, as explained by Pinker.  Dehaene explains the object modeling and construction process within the unconscious and conscious brain.  Mathematicians view anything that can be defined and used in deductive reasoning and mathematical proofs as an object.  These mathematical objects can be values of variables, allowing them to be used in formulas.  
in his dreams in great detail, subjectively change what was happening and link in external events.  He developed a theory that there must be an interpretation department that tells you what is being observed. 

53 The Chief Research Chemist of the Metaplast Corporation
During the summer holidays at MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.   Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
used his academic contacts to get a job.  He really wanted to work at
A government sanctioned monopoly supported the construction of a superorganism American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).  Within this Bell Labs was at the center of three networks:
  1. The evolving global scientific network. 
  2. The Bell telephone network.  And
  3. The military industrial network deploying 'fire and missile control' systems. 
Bell Labs strategically leveraged each network to create an innovation engine. 
They monitored the opportunities to leverage the developing ideas, reorganizing to replace incumbent opposition and enable the creation and growth of new ideas. 
Once the monopoly was dismantled, AT&T disrupted. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the innovation mechanisms are discussed. 

Bell Labs
, where he visited Bill Shockley, but didn't get an offer that year.  Instead, at the height of the depression, he accepted a job from his childhood friend and fellow home experimenter, to become the chief chemist at his new company.  It was small: the president was Richard's friend's father, his friend was the vice-president, there was a salesman, Richard the chief research chemist, and his friend's brother who washed the bottles; selling silver plated versions of plastic products. 

Richard was attracted to his friend's showmanship.  They used to do chemistry demonstrations for the other kids in the neighborhood.  The culmination was Richard setting fire to his benzene coated hands.  He had first dipped them in water which kept his hands cool.  He redid the demonstration for his doubting fraternity only to discover once you grow hairs on your hands the water doesn't act as a barrier. 

Richard set up scientific experiments to improve the ingredients used in plating the many new plastics, but the salesman was always promising they could plate plastics they had not worked with yet, disrupting Richard's activities.  Eventually the company committed to producing a product in high volume that they could not effectively plate and the company went under. 

Later, Richard discovered that a British company was also silver plating plastics, but they looked at the advertisements Metaplast setup in a trade magazine, and exited the business.  They imagined a US corporation with such impressive looking products must be large and well capitalized and just gave in. 

THE PRINCETON YEARS

59 "Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!"
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
would have been happy to become a graduate student at MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  .  But Professor Slater argued he should experience how the rest of the world is.  He chose Princeton. 

Princeton affected the culture is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
of an elitist Oxbridge college: High tea with Dean Eisenhart & his wife, gowns at dinner; all alien to Richard.  But the approach to science was just like his.  The laboratories at Princeton reminded him of the one he built during childhood

He had seen the successful papers produced with Princeton's cyclotron.  He found it in the basement of an old building.  MIT's "gold-plated" machine was superbly engineered with a separate control room - but it was hard to work on.  Cornell's cyclotron was the world's smallest - three feet in diameter - and delivered through all kinds of special techniques and tricks.  Princeton's was created by the scientists with wires and switches all over the place.  It forced the scientists to understand the componentry, how they contributed to the whole, required they do lots of maintenance, but encouraged experimentation and got results.  Richard loved the mess, the
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
opportunity to test and refine theories with iterative practice
, even though he conceded that the lack of
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
contributed to its eventually burning down. 

66 Meeeeeeeeeee!
There would be visits by external lecturers each Wednesday at the Princeton Graduate College.  Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
enjoyed arguing with speakers talking about religion, poetry, etc..  He
E O. Wilson argues that campfire gatherings on the savanna supported the emergence of human creativity.  This resulted in man building cultures and later exploring them, and their creator, through the humanities.  Wilson identifies the transformative events, but he notes many of these are presently ignored by the humanities.  So he calls for a change of approach. 

He:
  • Explores creativity: how it emerged from the benefits of becoming an omnivore hunter gatherer, enabled by language & its catalysis of invention, through stories told in the evening around the campfire. He notes the power of fine art, but suggests music provides the most revealing signature of aesthetic surprise. 
  • Looks at the current limitations of the humanities, as they have suffered through years of neglect.  
  • Reviews the evolutionary processes of heredity and culture:
    • Ultimate causes viewed through art, & music
    • The bedrock of:
      • Ape senses and emotions,
      • Creative arts, language, dance, song typically studied by humanities, & 
      • Exponential change in science and technology.  
    • How the breakthrough from our primate past occurred, powered by eating meat, supporting: a bigger brain, expanded memory & language. 
    • Accelerating changes now driven by genetic cultural coevolution.  
    • The impact on human nature.  
  • Considers our emotional attachment to the natural world: hunting, gardens; we are destroying. 
  • Reviews our love of metaphor, archetypes, exploration, irony, and considers the potential for a third enlightenment, supported by cooperative action of humanities and science

Following our summary of his arguments RSS frames these from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory:
  • The humanities are seen to be a functionalist framework for representing the cultural CAS while 
  • Wilson's desire to integrate the humanities and science gains support from viewing the endeavor as a network of layered CAS. 

dismissed the poetry abstraction as being easily tied by analogy to any subject
.  But Richard was keen to be one of the subjects in a hypnosis demonstration.  He was accepted, experiencing a sense of conflict between feeling are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
that he could ignore the demands of the hypnotist and actually going along with them.  But he admitted that when told he would not feel a burn on the back of his hand, he did not, so he assumed it was a trick.  Afterwards he observed the burn mark which eventually blistered. 

69 A Map of the Cat?
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was gregarious and curious.  He would join different groups of graduate students: philosophers, biologists; for lunch, where he would get invited to attend lectures on some challenging aspect of their course work.  He attended a lecture on Whitehead's conception of an essential object is a collection of: happenings, occurrences and processes; including emergent entities, as required by relativity, explains Rovelli.  But natural selection has improved our fitness by representing this perception, in our minds, as an unchanging thing, as explained by Pinker.  Dehaene explains the object modeling and construction process within the unconscious and conscious brain.  Mathematicians view anything that can be defined and used in deductive reasoning and mathematical proofs as an object.  These mathematical objects can be values of variables, allowing them to be used in formulas.  
, where he exposed the confusion of ideas the students held by asking if a brick is one.  Feynman considered the electron to be a
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
model
that helped physicists, like him, understand the implications of experimental results.  So a physical brick should have interesting properties and models associated with it.  And he explored biological complexity, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos
more deeply. 

Feynman soon discovered a key difference between the elegant simplicity of physics and the history-dependent myriad details of biology, demanding, to Richard, tedious memorization instead of mathematical tools and logic.   And the different conventions used made it difficult for him to communicate with the biologists without making them laugh, or get his reports into an acceptable form.  He remained interested enough that later, while at Caltech, he attended seminars for the biology department including a lecture by James Watson on the DNA (DNA), a polymer composed of a chain of deoxy ribose sugars with purine or pyrimidine side chains.  DNA naturally forms into helical pairs with the side chains stacked in the center of the helix.  It is a natural form of schematic string.  The purines and pyrimidines couple so that AT and GC pairs make up the stackable items.  A code of triplets of base pairs (enabling 64 separate items to be named) has evolved which now redundantly represents each of the 20 amino-acids that are deployed into proteins, along with triplets representing the termination sequence.  Chemical modifications and histone binding (chromatin) allow cells to represent state directly on the DNA schema.  To cope with inconsistencies in the cell wide state second messenger and evolved amplification strategies are used.   coding system, the mapping of DNA base triplet sequences, such as AAA and AAT, to amino-acids (AAA maps to the amino-acid lysine for example) and transcription termination sequences (TGA maps to stop transcription for example) that has currently evolved.  .  He became so inspired by what was being discovered that he did some research in molecular biology: 
Feynman notes that, as usual, he pushed to see how far he could go in becoming successful in a field.  But he really preferred working in physics. 

77 Monster Minds
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
became a research assistant to John Wheeler.  He was assigned a problem to work on, but found he was making no progress in solving it.  So, he worked on an alternative problem, he had started at MIT is Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  , and devised a creative
Good ideas are successful because they build upon prior developments that have been successfully implemented.  Johnson demonstrates that they are phenotypic expressions of memetic plans subject to the laws of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
idea
about how it worked. 
When you shake an electron - say with a magnetic field, the charged particle radiates electromagnetic radiation.  Theory requires a force of radiating reaction, to be acting, generated by the electron acting on itself.  And if the electron is charged a different force must operate than when it is not.  What could be the source of the second force?  Feynman suggested to Wheeler the second force came from nearby electrons being shaken by the shaking of the experimental electron.  And he provided the calculations that aligned with experiment. 
Wheeler could see issues with the idea, which astonished Feynman because he assumed John had done the calculations immediately.  Later, Feynman realized Wheeler and other monster minds had developed
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Evolution's schematic operators and Samuel modeling together support the indirect recording of past successes and their strategic use by the current agent to learn how to succeed in the proximate environment. 
models
that allowed them to 'see' the implications of a problem.  Wheeler proposed adding the assumption that advanced waves allowed the reaction to occur at the point of measurement, and that lots of electrons, all over space, participate, then the idea might work.  They did the calculations and found the approach worked.  It differed from Maxwell was a Scottish mathematical physicist who systematized light, magnetism and electric fields using 20 partial differential equations, concluding they are all of the same form travelling at the speed of light in a vacuum.  This allowed Maxwell to predict the existence of radio waves.  He contributed to the development of the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistical kinetic distribution of gases, the analysis of trusses and was interested in color, producing the first persistent color photograph.  He was born on 13 June 1831 in Edinburgh to wealthy Scottish aristocrats, James Clerk Maxwell of Middlebie and Frances Cay who was 40 when James was born.  James grew up isolated from other children on a 1,500 acres estate, Glenlair in Kirkcudbrightshire, where from age of three he was already happy and remarkably curious.  Frances provided his early education including scripture, until she died at age 48 from abdominal cancer.  James also died at 48 from abdominal cancer.  His father and father's sister then educated James at home until he entered Edinburgh Academy at 10.  He did not limit his interests to the school's syllabus or exams.  He was fascinated by geometry and won the school's scripture, English, and poetry prizes and the mathematical medal at 13.  He was treated as rustic and nicknamed 'Daftie," by the other children.  But eventually made friends with Lewis Campbell and Peter Guthrie Tait who became lifelong friends.  He wrote a scientific paper at 14 on Cartesian ovals, which was presented by James Forbes to the Royal Society of Edinburgh.  At 16 Maxwell attended the University of Edinburgh, which he preferred to Cambridge.  He was tutored on logic and metaphysics by Sir William Hamilton, and lectured on mathematics by Philip Kelland and natural philosophy by James Forbes - from whom he became interested in color and showed that white light could be constructed from red green and blue.  Maxwell went to Cambridge to obtain a fellowship at Trinity, later granted in 1855, where he became an Apostle, extending his Christian beliefs.  He graduated with a degree in mathematics, studying under William Hopkins.  He became a professor at Aberdeen's Marischal College where he studied the physics of Saturn's rings, concluding they must be formed from particles to remain in orbit.  When Marischal merged with King's College, Maxwell was made redundant.  He moved to London to King's College with his wife Katherine Mary Dewar.  He attended Royal Institution lectures, meeting Michael Faraday, and he made his advances in electromagnetism as well as dimensional analysis and viscosity of gases, and color.  After London, Maxwell wrote a paper on control theory at Glenlair and then returned to Cambridge as the Cavendish Professor of Physics.  He was in Cambridge when he died. 
's and Lorentz's standard theories, but didn't suffer from infinities that until then undermined self-action. 

Wheeler proposed: to Eugene Wigner that, Feynman would present the topic at a department weekly technical talk.  Wigner, realizing the significance of the idea let Russell, von Neumann, John was a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who published the earliest paper specifying architecture for digital computing.  It ensured this computing architecture was not patentable.  The architecture has a central processing unit (CPU), random access storage addressable by the CPU and a sequencer.  The architecture encourages a serial software architecture that matches the logic of the sequencer and processing operations on program and data.  Von Neumann, his history, computing architecture and some alternative architectures are reviewed by Melanie Mitchell.  , Wolfgang Pauli (who was visiting) and Einstein, know about the talk.  Feynman would explain the classical scenario, and Wheeler would talk about the application to the problems of self-action in quantum theory at a later date. 

Feynman gave his talk, and as usual, once he was discussing the physics he got too focused to become nervous.  On reflection he didn't need to justify his talk with boards of equations, because these people already knew the theory.  But he was worried about handling the questions.  He was relieved to find that the monsters discussed them amongst themselves.  Pauli felt the theory was wrong, listing off a stream of issues which Feynman was too terrified to record.  But Einstein conceded the problem of self-action was very hard for general relativity to handle and could see merit in Wheeler and Feynman's idea.  After the talk Pauli whispered to Feynman that Wheeler will never give the second seminar.  On reflection, Feynman notes that both he and Wheeler had never been able to solve the quantum theory of half-advanced, half-retarded potentials, having worked on it for years. 

81 Mixing Paints
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
admits that as an adolescent in humans supports the transition from a juvenile configuration, dependent on parents and structured to learn & logistically transform, to adult optimized to the proximate environment.  And it is staged encouraging male adolescents to escape the hierarchy they grew up in and enter other groups where they may bring in: fresh ideas, risk taking; and alter the existing hierarchy: Steve Jobs & Steve Wozniak, Bill Gates & Paul Allen; while females become highly focused on friendships and communications.  It marks the beginning of Piaget's formal operational stage of cognitive development.  The limbic, autonomic and hormone networks are already deployed and functioning effectively.  The frontal cortex has to be pruned: winning neurons move to their final highly connected positions, and are myelinated over time.  The rest dissolve.  So the frontal lobe does not obtain its adult configuration and networked integration until the mid-twenties when prefrontal cortex control becomes optimal.  The evolutionarily oldest areas of the frontal cortex mature first.  The PFC must be iteratively customized by experience to do the right thing as an adult.  Adolescents:
  • Don't detect irony effectively.  They depend on the DMPFC to do this, unlike adults who leverage the fusiform face area.  
  • Regulate emotions with the ventral striatum while the prefrontal cortex is still being setup.  Dopamine projection density and signalling increase from the ventral tegmentum catalyzing increased interest in dopamine based rewards.  Novelty seeking allows for creative exploration which was necessary to move beyond the familial pack.  Criticisms do not get incorporated into learning models by adolescents leaving their risk assessments very poor.  The target of the dopamine networks, the adolescent accumbens, responds to rewards like a gyrating top - hugely to large rewards, and negatively to small rewards.  Eventually as the frontal regions increase in contribution there are steady improvements in: working memory, flexible rule use, executive organization and task shifting.  And adolescents start to see other people's perspective. 
  • Drive the cellular transformations with post-pubescent high levels of testosterone in males, and high but fluctuating estrogen & progesterone levels in females.  Blood flow to the frontal cortex is also diverted on occasion to the groin.  
  • Peer pressure is exceptionally influential in adolescents.  Admired peer comments reduce vmPFC activity and enhance ventral striatal activity.  Adults modulate the mental impact of socially mean treatment: the initial activation of the PAG, anterior cingulate, amygdala, insula cortex; which generate feelings of pain, anger, and disgust, with the VLPFC but that does not occur in adolescents.  
  • Feel empathy intensely, supported by their rampant emotions, interest in novelty, ego.  But feeling the pain of others can induce self-oriented avoidance of the situations. 
he only valued practical men, who could build things.  He didn't see any virtue in exploring culture is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
and the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors.  .  In retrospect, with his additional years of experience he accepts that there is value in music is a complex emergent capability supported by sexual selection and generating pleasure.  It transforms the sensing of epiphenomena: Contour, Rhythm, Tempo, Timbre; to induce salient representations: Harmony, Key, Loudness, Melody, Meter, Pitch, and perceptions: Reverberation - echo; which allow musicians: Elton John, Elvis Presley; to show their fitness: superior coordination, creativity, adolescent leadership, stamina; true for birds and humans.  Levitin showed that listening to music causes a cascade of brain regions to become activated in a particular order: auditory cortex, frontal regions, such as BA44 and BA47, and finally the mesolimbic system, culminating in the nucleus accumbens.  And he found the cerebellum and basal ganglia were active throughout the session.  He argues music mimics some of the features of language and conveys some of the same emotions.  The brain regions pulse with the beat and predict the next one.  As the music is heard it is modeled and generates dopamine rewards for matching each beat and noting creative jokes in the rhythm.  The cerebellum finds pleasure in adjusting itself to stay synchronized. 
, French literature and other intellectual pursuits.  And his physics suffered from distrusting simple theories that predicted what would happen, instead looking for additional options worrying that 'anything can happen.' 

He ended up chatting with a painter, an example practical man, who tried to convince him that yellow paint was a mixture of red and white.  Feynman, didn't doubt the assertion, but was interested in how this could be so.  It wasn't - the painter got yellow by adding a little yellow.  Feynman noted that the owner of the establishment initially admonished him for arguing with a paint expert.  And then afterwards the owner shifted allegiance to Feynman, an expert who understood how to mix colored light. 

84 A Different Box of Tools
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
recalls how Mr. Bader, his high school physics teacher, realizing Richard was: ahead in each lesson, bored, and was being distracting, sat him in a corner with Woods Advanced Calculus is a numerical analysis strategy, developed and highlighted by Newton and Leibniz, who both leveraged the ideas of de Fermat.  He used adequality: how the addition of an infinitesimal quantity e to each component of an algebraic "equality", allowed for miniscule terms to be generated algebraically, and dropped, the factor of e canceled out, allowing the maxima and minima to be closely approached. 
to study, which allowed him to build on the tools he had found in Calculus for the Practical Man.  This introduced Feynman to many new tools: Fourier series, Bessel functions, determinants, elliptic functions, differentiating parameters under the integral sign for differentiation under the integral sign provides a strategy in calculus for integrals where partial derivatives show inside the integral only the variation of f(x,t) only x is considered in taking the derivative. 
; that Richard found wonderful.  And since this activity was unsupervised, he built upon his previous approach.  This often made Feynman useful to the other mathematics and theoretical physics graduate students, because when their typically standardized strategies failed, Richard's different set of tools often worked.  And Richard helped ensure success by applying a tool he often used: as they described the problem, and its constraints: it's class 2 (T2) implies uniqueness of the limits of sequences, nets and filters. 
Hausdorff, or T2 space, is a topological space that is separated: for any two distinct points there exist neighborhoods of each which are disjoint from the other. 
homomorphic is a function that is a one-to-one mapping between sets such that both the function and its inverse are continuous, with a topology for geometric figures allowing an elastic deformation to transform between them. 
; he would be picking simple mental examples that fit the scenario.  He could rapidly see what was happening in their problem, in his simple example, and see if their approach was applicable. 

As usual, Feynman was curious, friendly and a tease, and the mathematicians, all very interested in the big advances being made in topology relates to properties of geometric objects that are preserved under continuous deformations: stretching, twisting, crumpling, and bending. 
would talk with him about it.  Paul Olum, who became his friend, taught him the ideas, all the way up to homotopy is a property of continuous functions in topological space if one can be continuously deformed into the other. 
groups record information about the basic shape or the holes of a topological space.  So they allow topological spaces to be classified: homotopic; according to wikipedia.org. 
.  But he never learned contour integration is a collection of methods: Cauchy integral formula, residue theorem, direct integration of a complex-valued function along a curve in a complex plane; of evaluation some integrals along paths in a complex plane. 
and would use his toolbox to solve integration challenges when he needed to. 

88 Mindreaders
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
relates a story from his father's upbringing.  His father was educated by a mind-reader, for a time.  The mind-reader was able to find items the people, in his audience, had earlier hidden around the town he was visiting and they lived in.  Richard's father was able to get the man to explain the trick he used to convince people that he could read their minds.  The mind-reader explained he would hold their hands, loosely, and walk with them.  At each potential turn by giggling his hand, gently pulling in each direction he would feel for resistance.  He would proceed in the direction where there was no resistance.  They led him directly to the hidden item.  Richard tried it on his Princeton friends and it worked. 

Another time Richard and his father were attending a fair, and watched a mind-reader, helped by an assistant in the crowd, describing items that people showed only to the assistant.  Richard's father explained to him that the mind-reader and his assistant used a code, but he didn't recognize it.  So he sent Richard off to have his fortune read while he convinced the mind-reader to reveal the code to him.  Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
notes "my father was a salesman.  He could set up a situation like that.  I can't do stuff like that." 

91 The Amateur Scientist
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
reflects on his approach to science.  During his childhood he collected and adapted many tools to help him play: his home lab, portable and desk microscopes; for qualitative exploration.  He looked opportunistically and patiently at single celled organisms and groups of ants.  Careful observation illustrated how text books were misrepresenting the complexity, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos
of biology, by over simplifying the entity are, according to Abbott, a class including people, families, corporations, hurricanes.  They implement abstract designs and are demarcatable by their reduced entropy relative to their components.  Rovelli notes entities are a collection of relations and events, but memory and our continuous process of anticipation, organizes the series of quantized interactions we perceive into an illusion of permanent objects flowing from past to future.  Abbott identifies two types of entity:
  1. At equilibrium entities,
  2. Autonomous entities, which can control how they are affected by outside forces;
's description.  He persisted with cheerful exploration throughout his life.  Overtime he was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
added experimental techniques that differentiated between alternative possibilities.  That allowed him, while at Princeton when ants found his larder, to conclude that: ants use chemical signals, individually explore by zigzagging, but follow the trail of others from a prize back to their base, smoothing out the path into a straight line, and that individual ants have no global geometric perception of where they are. 

FEYNMAN, THE BOMB, AND THE MILITARY

99 Fizzled Fuses
Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
applied to
A government sanctioned monopoly supported the construction of a superorganism American Telephone and Telegraph (AT&T).  Within this Bell Labs was at the center of three networks:
  1. The evolving global scientific network. 
  2. The Bell telephone network.  And
  3. The military industrial network deploying 'fire and missile control' systems. 
Bell Labs strategically leveraged each network to create an innovation engine. 
They monitored the opportunities to leverage the developing ideas, reorganizing to replace incumbent opposition and enable the creation and growth of new ideas. 
Once the monopoly was dismantled, AT&T disrupted. 
Complex adaptive system (CAS) models of the innovation mechanisms are discussed. 

Bell Labs
for work, once again, and was accepted.  He told them that he was keen to dedicate his summer to the war effort and they offered to put him on one of their military programs.  But he got carried away with working for the army.  The army pushed for him to follow the standard flow of recruits through basic training and beyond, but Feynman felt it would be better to use the tools he had collected to that point.  He pushed to spend the summer developing computers that helped control the targeting of guns. 

These computers were mechanical.  Feynman had to learn some mechanical engineering.  Initially fearful, he was shown the few rules of thumb that helped prioritize the possible decisions and began designing.  He had a lot of fun.  His immediate leadership warned Feynman's group not to reveal what they were doing to a visiting lieutenant.  They complied, but it was the visitor who asked how the device they were designing could cope with the typical separation of the operators from the gun.  Once this requirement was highlighted Feynman realized the approach they had taken based on polar coordinate systems is a coordinate system (set of axis) centered on a particular aspect of the situation that describes the location of an object.  The brain supports many frames of reference including for vision (2009), hearing & movement planning (Jul 2002).  Auditory stimuli are initially coded in a head-centered reference frame.  The motor system codes actions in reference frames that depend on motor effectors.  Eye movements are codes in a reference frame that depends on the difference between current and desired arm position.  It is often necessary to transform the location representation of the sensory stimulus into a representation appropriate for the motor act.  An eye-centered reference frame depends on the location of the eye in the head.  A retinotopic reference frame depends on the retinal location that is activated by a visual stimulus.  Double-saccade tasks show how the location of the second visual target is coded relative to current and desired eye position (eye-centered).  
was inferior to one using the Cartesian frame of reference is a coordinate system (set of axis) centered on a particular aspect of the situation that describes the location of an object.  The brain supports many frames of reference including for vision (2009), hearing & movement planning (Jul 2002).  Auditory stimuli are initially coded in a head-centered reference frame.  The motor system codes actions in reference frames that depend on motor effectors.  Eye movements are codes in a reference frame that depends on the difference between current and desired arm position.  It is often necessary to transform the location representation of the sensory stimulus into a representation appropriate for the motor act.  An eye-centered reference frame depends on the location of the eye in the head.  A retinotopic reference frame depends on the retinal location that is activated by a visual stimulus.  Double-saccade tasks show how the location of the second visual target is coded relative to current and desired eye position (eye-centered).  
- but it was too late to change their approach. 

At the end of the summer the army tried to convince Feynman to stay on, offering him the opportunity to design a complete system, including gathering the requirements.  But Feynman did some investigating and concluded the goal was probably impossible, so he chose to go back to Princeton to finish his degree. 

104 Testing Bloodhounds
While waiting for some medical procedure to complete during a visit to his wife in hospital, Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
read an article about Bloodhounds' exceptional sense of smell.  Intrigued, Richard thought of ways to investigate how similar the human sense of smell isHe designed a game for his wife to play with him: she would touch some object from a set in her room while he was outside and then he would smell her hands and the set of objects and pick the one he felt are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
she had touched.  They found he could do it.  There was a moist warm 'smell' associated with the objects she had just touched.  Subsequently, while at Princeton, Feynman described the findings at a faculty party.  The listeners were skeptical so Feynman demonstrated the technique.  He noticed that each person's hands had a different smell.  They didn't believe him, judging him a faker, and wondering who was assisting him within the room. 

107 Los Alamos from Below
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
's involvement with Oppenheimer's atomic bomb development started with Bob Wilson inviting him to join his secret project, separating different isotopes of uranium.  He would provide theoretical support for shaping the experimenters' research goals.  This meant his inputs were useful to the evaluation committee of great men: Compton, Smyth, Urey, Rabi, Oppenheimer, and chaired by Tolman; who introduced alternative ideas to each evaluated problem and then after each argued the values of his own, all agreed on the highest priority without rancor.  The committee concluded Wilson's approach would not be the one followed.  The Princeton team would instead go down to Los Alamos and help with building the bomb. 

Wilson asked Feynman to get a broad understanding of the analogous projects of the physicists in Chicago.  He returned with a vision of what the bomb would be: energy released, and what it was like.  Feynman didn't like acting as a sponge without providing the Chicago teams something in return.  So he was very pleased to help them by introducing his tool: differentiating under the integral sign; which solved a month long problem they had struggled with. 

Leading academics were gathered together for the work: Enrico Fermi, Edward Teller, John Williams, Bob Bacher, Hans Bethe, John Von Neumann, John was a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who published the earliest paper specifying architecture for digital computing.  It ensured this computing architecture was not patentable.  The architecture has a central processing unit (CPU), random access storage addressable by the CPU and a sequencer.  The architecture encourages a serial software architecture that matches the logic of the sequencer and processing operations on program and data.  Von Neumann, his history, computing architecture and some alternative architectures are reviewed by Melanie Mitchell.  , Niels & Aage Bohr; names Feynman had only previously seen in their papers in journals.  Berkeley's Robert Serber helped introduce Feynman to the nuclear physics atomic bomb theory he would need to contribute to the theoretical work.  Feynman read and studied hard.  Initially the only 'big shot' on site was Bethe who found Feynman helpful to test his ideas against.  Bethe gets to know him and makes him a group leader.  Fermi acting as a consultant reviewed a complicated problem Feynman was struggling with.  Immediately Fermi grasped the problem and explained the shape of the solution. 

The nature of the project introduced a variety of
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
:
Many who resided at the development enjoyed walking and exploring at the weekends.  Von Neumann, John was a brilliant Hungarian mathematician who published the earliest paper specifying architecture for digital computing.  It ensured this computing architecture was not patentable.  The architecture has a central processing unit (CPU), random access storage addressable by the CPU and a sequencer.  The architecture encourages a serial software architecture that matches the logic of the sequencer and processing operations on program and data.  Von Neumann, his history, computing architecture and some alternative architectures are reviewed by Melanie Mitchell.  , while walking, shared an insight about
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
: "that you don't have to be responsible for the world that you're in."  Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
developed a powerful sense of social irresponsibility as a result!

Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
watched the explosion of the first test bomb.  Everyone, at Los Alamos, was celebrating the achievement of making it happen - except Bob Wilson, who lamented the terrible potential for destruction that had been unleashed.  As Feynman thought more about Bob's view he conceded progress was pointless because everything would be destroyed anyway.  Thankfully, by the time he wrote the book he was pleased that he and others had continued to strive for progress since we had managed not to blow everything up. 

137 Safecracker Meets Safecracker
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
had been taught how to pick tumbler locks, and knew that it was easy, if you are patient.  He explains it depends on producing accurate parts - which is difficult.  This resulted in the lock mechanisms, placed under a force, depending on only one tumbler to deploy and free the bolt.  When Los Alamos deployed padlocks that were of this type he was appalled, pushed for a better mechanism and taunted the authorities by removing reports from the 'locked' cabinets.  Eventually the project replaced the cabinets with a design with an integrated combination lock.  Richard rose to the challenge! 

He took the new cabinet apart in his office and looked at how the lock worked.  But it did not present any obvious weakness.  So he read a book on safecracking which reviewed the weaknesses introduced by the users: writing down the combination, using a well-known number, leaving it with the default; but it did not highlight any design flaws.  Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
started systematic experiments: looking at the error allowed in specifying the number.  For his lock it was two either side of the actual number, reducing the numbers that must be tried but it still took hours to pick the lock.  But when Feynman was demonstrating his short cut, by luck, he opened the combination lock.  Everyone at Los Alamos gossiped that he was a safecracker!  He persisted, with a new strategy, when other people's cabinets were open he could discretely play with the combination and find the last two numbers of the three.  Over time he built up an understanding of these numbers in many of the offices.  And he would leverage this knowledge by opening these cabinets when asked, while he would say he was too busy for the other ones he hadn't explored.  And he tried to warn a general, with a big safe, protected by the same lock mechanism, that his safe must be left locked.  What the general decided was to force everyone who said Feynman had been in their office to change their combination. 

Feynman later needed to go back to Los Alamos to obtain some records.  These details were held in the library which was closed and had a very secure door, Feynman had already ascertained.  But he knew a copy of the records was made by the declassification department, so they didn't have to walk over to the library each time a request was made.  Feynman went to the department and opened the nine cabinets: they were all protected by the same combination which was the first six numbers of the base of log e

Feynman was asked to open a huge safe, but when he went to examine it he found it was already open.  The locksmith for Los Alamos had already opened it.  Feynman wanted to know how a professional did this.  He spent some time developing a relationship with the guy and eventually worked round to how he had opened the safe.  The locksmith said it was not possible to drill the safe and he didn't know a way to pick it.  But he knew the two default settings used by the factory and the second one worked

156 Uncle Sam Doesn't Need You!
The army was still drafting soldiers to execute the occupation of Germany at the end of the war.  Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
had a medical which included a psychiatric exam which Richard failed. 

He admits to being surly and argumentative with the psychiatrists.  So they took the least charitable view of his statements.  He told them of his aunt who was committed to an insane asylum.  And he said he heard the foreign accents of Professor Teller and Vallarta as his brain replayed their conversations in the brain includes functionally different types: Declarative, or explicit, (episodic and semantic), Implicit, Procedural, Spatial, Temporal, Verbal; Hebb suggested that glutamate receptive neurons learn by (NMDA channel based) synaptic strengthening: short term memory.  This was shown to happen for explicit memory formation in the hippocampus.  This strengthening is sustained by subsequent LTP.  The non-real-time learning and planning processes operate through consciousness using the working memory structures, and then via sleep, the salient ones are consolidated while the rest are destroyed and garbage collected.  .  Richard noted that he could hear but not pronounce the professors' words with such an accent.  He told the psychiatrists that he would talk to his dead wife while thinking about her.  The army doctors didn't like any of this information. 

FROM CORNELL TO CALTECH, WITH A TOUCH OF BRAZIL

165 The Dignified Professor
Accepting an invitation from Cornell to become a professor, Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
describes a series of challenges he faced there early on:

175 Any Questions?
Cornell had committed to providing an aeronautics laboratory in Buffalo with a series of physics lectures.  Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was asked to give the lectures, which required traveling there in a light plane once a week, to give the lecture before flying back the next morning.  This wasn't much fun for Richard.  But the university provided a stipend of $35 plus expenses, so Richard dedicated the money to having some fun after the lecture

After the first flight Feynman asked the taxi driver where there was a fun place in Buffalo.  He was taken to an upmarket bar, where at the driver's recommendation he drank Black & White whiskey.  The barman ensured a beautiful woman would sit next to Richard and he would have fun buying her drinks and chatting for hours.  But as the bar was closing he noted these women always had another appointment and left.  Later Richard found out this bar was frequented by all the book-makers and their 'girls.' 

On the night of the last lecture the woman Feynman was buying drinks for suggested they go on to another place.  But while there Richard was forced into a fight and had to flee with a developing black eye. 

180 I Want My Dollar!
Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
got a call from a business in California, while he was visiting his parents.  The company wanted Richard to become head of a lab they were funding to build a nuclear plane.  Because he held a patent for inventing using nuclear power to propel an aircraft they were interested in him.  He explained he was a theoretical physicist with no expertise in engineering.  Richard described the patent process highlighting two points:
  1. The government implemented a process to encourage developing patents for any idea the scientists at Los Alamos had.  The ideas were provided to the government in a contract for a nominal reward of a dollar. 
  2. Richard insisted on getting the dollar.  The official eventually paid him from his own pocket.  Richard didn't want the money - he bought candies to share with the others, but he was a stickler for enforcing the exact terms of contracts.  

184 You Just Ask Them?
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
describes trying to save a relationship that had developed with a woman in New Mexico, while he was at Los Alamos, by going there to see her for the summer.  He failed and found himself in Albuquerque staying at a hotel in a strip near a nightclub with entertainment.  Richard liked talking to people in bars, especially beautiful women who he hoped to sleep with.  But at the end of each night, he like most of the other men at the club failed in this goal

Richard enjoyed making people at the club think he was drunk, even though he wasn't.  One evening he offered a party of girls he was talking to, free drinks and they chose champagne.  That was expensive, and Richard tried to tell the waiter to cancel the order.  But due to miscommunication the waiter served the champagne and Richard got a reputation at the club of being a big spender. 

With this reputation, Feynman got to know the master of ceremonies and his wife, Tamara.  They convinced him they understood the environment at the club and could:
Richard, concluded that the strategy worked but tells us he did not like this way of thinking about women and didn't approach them again in this way

192 Lucky Numbers
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
tells a series of stories highlighting the advantages of knowing about numbers:
  • Playing with series as a child and realizing each additional term of e**x became much smaller.  Observing the changes highlights general properties. 
  • Leveraging the particular properties of a situation, along with luck, to predict and then iterate to an approximate result, while presenting the appearance of mastering the general case, to baffle those who knew better; such as Tukey.  Feynman concedes Paul Olum could always identify the impossible case and show he was faking.  And Olum could easily trick him!
  • Competing with others to get a result the fastest.  Hans Bethe, knew how to calculate many numbers in his head very quickly.  He explained how he did it to Feynman who tried to emulate him.  As Richard started to memorize certain numbers and relations: logs; he became aware of patterns that can be used in interpolation.  He had fun trying to do arithmetic fast, by tricks, with Hans.  And was rewarded with a congratulatory laugh when he beat Hans to the draw.  
Richard concludes that depending on a tool, built by others, to obtain a result, leaves the user unaware of the deeper properties that are revealed as one explores the details to find strategies to get the result. 

199 O Americano, Outra Vez!
Having been convinced by a hitchhiker to go to South America, and beginning to learn Spanish, Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was invited to travel to Brazil as a visiting professor at the Center for Physical Research.  That required switching to Portuguese but meant he could enjoy studying the girls on the Copacabana beach during his free afternoons.  He also joined a samba band, playing the frigideira.  It was all great fun. 

But in giving his lectures, an advanced course on electricity and magnetism, he noticed when he asked questions, the students were able to answer perfectly immediately, but when he asked a question applying the same logic again but posed in a different way, they would become clueless. 
Eventually he realized the reason for the inconsistency was that they were memorizing everything, but not understanding the concepts and meanings.  He observed a typical lecture where he noted that students were expected to write down each sentence as dictated by the lecturer.  And he realized that due to this process only he, but not one of the note takers, could perceive the physical system being described, and so could relate it to nature.  And he attended a spoken exam which again tested if they could regurgitate what had been memorized.  But Feynman asked some questions which showed they could not apply this knowledge in the physical world.  It was an effect of the education system. 

Feynman taught a course on mathematical methods in physics, demonstrating how to solve problems by trial and error.  He proceeded from simple examples to very difficult ones.  But after the initial lecture the students were upset that he was teaching them simple mathematics they had learned years before.  They said it was beneath them to do assignments.  He continued with the lectures, the techniques getting harder, but they still didn't do the assignments.  He concluded it was because they couldn't. 

Feynman noted that none of his Brazilian students would ask questions.  This was because anyone who did was criticized by the rest of the body for wasting time.  They judged it beneath themselves to discuss the questions with each other and talk it over.  Feynman concluded their self-propagating education was meaningless. 

Feynman presented his conclusions, in a lecture to the academy, on the Brazilian system:
  • Science is an understanding of the behavior of nature
  • A civilized country will teach science
  • But he asserted it is absurd to teach science just to conform.  There should be a good sensible reason. 
  • And he argued no science is being taught in Brazil. 
  • He explained that he had seen many elementary school kids in Brazil buying physics books.  So he was surprised no one was becoming a physicist.  (Everyone became physics teachers.) 
  • He concluded they were all learning the definitions of physical objects and abstract relations, but these were not grounded in the physical details, and so did not provide the students with a testable or relatable representation of the physical world.  
  • He noted that the physics book they used had almost no experimental results detailed.  And in the one example he found the data was contrived and could not be generated in an actual experiment.  There is no experience of nature. 
  • It was just a self-propagating system where people learned how to teach others to pass exams so these students could also do the same.  But no one knows anything. 

220 Man of a Thousand Tongues
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
attended a party at Professor Brasher's house.  Brasher knew of Feynman's speaking a little Portuguese.  He decided to play a joke on Feynman, having one of the attendees, who could speak a little Mandarin, greet Richard in Chinese.  But Feynman reacted confidently, responding to the lady in similar sounding language.  Dismayed, she announced to Brasher, "Oh, my God! I knew this would happen--I speak Mandarin and he speaks Cantonese!" 

221 Certainly, Mr. Big!
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
enjoyed the experience of interacting with beautiful young women so much he would stay in a motel in Las Vegas during his summer holidays, to increase his chances of meeting them.  He makes a number of points about the experience:

232 An Offer You Must Refuse
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
had spent enough
Carlo Rovelli resolves the paradox of time. 
Rovelli initially explains that low level physics does not include time:
  • A present that is common throughout the universe does not exist
  • Events are only partially ordered.  The present is localized
  • The difference between past and future is not foundational.  It occurs because of state that through our blurring appears particular to us
  • Time passes at different speeds dependent on where we are and how fast we travel
  • Time's rhythms are due to the gravitational field
  • Our quantized physics shows neither space nor time, just processes transforming physical variables. 
  • Fundamentally there is no time.  The basic equations evolve together with events, not things 
Then he explains how in a physical world without time its perception can emerge:
  • Our familiar time emerges
    • Our interaction with the world is partial, blurred, quantum indeterminate
    • The ignorance determines the existence of thermal time and entropy that quantifies our uncertainty
    • Directionality of time is real but perspectival.  The entropy of the world in relation to us increases with our thermal time.  The growth of entropy distinguishes past from future: resulting in traces and memories
    • Each human is a unified being because: we reflect the world, we formed an image of a unified entity by interacting with our kind, and because of the perspective of memory
    • The variable time: is one of the variables of the gravitational field.  With our scale we don't register quantum fluctuations, making space-time appear determined.  At our speed we don't perceive differences in time of different clocks, so we experience a single time: universal, uniform, ordered; which is helpful to our decisions

time
collaborating with Professor Brasher, who moved to Caltech, to be made aware of the benefits of both that institution: top researchers who were friendly, in many fields of science that interested Richard; and of being near Los Angeles.  And while Richard could see the pros and cons of Cornell, Ithaca being small, away from the bright lights and very cold in the winter, wasn't much of a draw. 

Caltech and Cornell kept making better and better offers to Feynman.  Richard was about to have a sabbatical from Cornell, which he intended to spend in Brazil, and he assumed that benefit would keep him at Cornell, but Caltech told him they would give him a year in Brazil prior to his first year at Caltech, so Richard decided integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
, on balance, to move to the west coast. 

He accepted the offer from Caltech, spent a year in Brazil and then setup his life in Southern California.  But the offers kept coming, and University of Chicago joined in the competition.  Chicago sent emissaries to see Feynman at home, who stressed they would make him an offer he could not refuse.  He sent them away without getting the details.  He had concluded he was happy with his new life and the time dedicated to additional decision making integrates situational context, state and signals to prioritize among strategies and respond in a timely manner.  It occurs in all animals, including us and our organizations: 
  • Individual human decision making includes conscious and unconscious aspects.  Situational context is highly influential: supplying meaning to our general mechanisms, & for robots too.  Emotions are important in providing a balanced judgement.  The adaptive unconscious interprets percepts quickly supporting 'fast' decision making.  Conscious decision making, supported by the: DLPFC, vmPFC and limbic system; can use slower autonomy.  The amygdala, during unsettling or uncertain social situations, signals the decision making regions of the frontal lobe, including the orbitofrontal cortex.  The BLA supports rejecting unacceptable offers.  Moral decisions are influenced by a moral decision switch.  Sleeping before making an important decision is useful in obtaining the support of the unconscious in developing a preference.  Word framing demonstrates the limitations of our fast intuitive decision making processes.  And prior positive associations detected by the hippocampus, can be reactivated with the support of the striatum linking it to the memory of a reward, inducing a bias into our choices.  Prior to the development of the PFC, the ventral striatum supports adolescent decision making.  Neurons involved in decision making in the association areas of the cortex are active for much longer than neurons participating in the sensory areas of the cortex.  This allows them to link perceptions with a provisional action plan.  Association neurons can track probabilities connected to a choice.  As evidence is accumulated and a threshold is reached a choice is made, making fast thinking highly adaptive.  Diseases including: schizophrenia and anorexia; highlight aspects of human decision making. 
  • Organisations often struggle to balance top down and distributed decision making: parliamentry government must use a process, health care is attempting to improve the process: checklists, end-to-end care; and include more participants, but has systemic issues, business leaders struggle with strategy. 
was a waste.  He would stop gathering more options. 

Later, Chicago had the opportunity to tell him the huge salary they were offering, so he wrote them a letter, declining the move, explaining with that much money he would "get a wonderful mistress, put her up in an apartment, buy her nice things..." presenting a dangerous scenario that would eventually trap Feynman, making him uncomfortable and unhappy, and interfere with his physics. 

THE WORLD OF ONE PHYSICIST

237 Would You Solve the Dirac Equation?
Professor Wheeler wrote to Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
, who was on sabbatical in Brazil, inviting him to attend a theoretical physics symposium in Japan.  Richard is inspired to help the Japanese physicists reenter the global community.  And the Japanese treat Feynman with great respect.  Wheeler asks each of the US attendees is asked to learn a little Japanese.  Richard takes lessons, persists and during the trip can converse effectively.  He notes he was the only American scientist who learned the language! 

Richard was keen to experience the real Japan, going out of his way to stay in a Japanese hotel, follow the customs, and eat the food, including fish - which he had always previously hated but found he enjoyed in Japan - because it was served so fresh.  He returned to Japan on a trip with his second wife Mary Lou. 

While Feynman is learning Japanese he finds the language treats the self as less attractive than others and especially the divine.  Richard finds this aspect of the culture is also reflected in the Japanese approach to science.  Dirac's personal work on say "solving the Dirac equation, developed by Paul Dirac using only first derivatives, is a Lagrangian density formula where the photon emission is equated to the contributing: magnitude of the electric charge of the proton, the electromagnetic current of the proton and Dirac spinor of the photon; and to the contributing: magnitude of the electric charge of the proton with contributing: ubar of the proton, Dirac matrix, Dirac spinor of the proton; and the Dirac spinor of the photon.  Dirac took the square root of the relativistic energy-mass equation generating four partial differential equations involving four 4*4 matrices and a new four-component wave function which was soon understood to be a bispinor consisting of two Weyl-like spinors one for electrons and the other for the positron (anti-electron). 
" would be expressed by Dirac as less attractive than his colleagues work; this was a position which conflicted with his individualism, so Richard stopped working on learning the language. 

247 The 7 Percent Solution
By 1956, Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was unhappy with his achievements in physics.  He felt: slower than his peers, not keeping up or understanding the latest details, fearful is an emotion which prepares the body for time sensitive action: Blood is sent to the muscles from the gut and skin, Adrenalin is released stimulating: Fuel to be released from the liver, Blood is encouraged to clot, and Face is wide-eyed and fearful.  The short-term high priority goal, experienced as a sense of urgency, is to flee, fight or deflect the danger.  There are both 'innate' - really high priority learning - which are mediated by the central amygdala and learned fears which are mediated by the BLA which learns to fear a stimulus and then signals the central amygdala.  Tara Brach notes we experience fear as a painfully constricted throat, chest and belly, and racing heart.  The mind can build stories of the future which include fearful situations making us anxious about current ideas and actions that we associate with the potential future scenario.  And it can associate traumatic events from early childhood with our being at fault.  Consequent assumptions of our being unworthy can result in shame and fear of losing friendships.  The mechanism for human fear was significantly evolved to protect us in the African savanna.  This does not align perfectly with our needs in current environments: U.S. Grant was unusually un-afraid of the noise or risk of guns and trusted his horses' judgment, which mostly benefited his agency as a modern soldier. 
that he could not cope; as the theoretical physics community worked to understand the laws of beta-decay is a type of radioactive decay, where a fast electron or positron is emitted from the nucleus of an atom.  Fermi had developed a theory of beta decay.  But during the 1950s the former assumptions of parity within nuclear physics were replaced: to construct a simple, coherent theory of beta decay; removing the requirement for different tau and theta particles: of the same mass and decay life time, generated in the same ratio during cyclotron collisions; formerly needed because tau disintegrated into two pions while theta disintegrated into three. 
.  But Martin Block, who was sharing a room with him while they attended the 1956 Rochester conference, pushed Richard to question the troubling parity premise assumed that all the laws of physics were mirror-image symmetrical by Noether's theorem.  Parity is a multiplicative quantum number.  There are two types of parity: intrinsic to a particle and a spatial part which depends on the particle's angular momentum about a given point.  Atomic states that undergo photon absorption or emission are transformed to the opposite parity due to the conservation of parity in electromagnetic interactions.  Wigner then showed the law of conservation of parity is a direct consequence of the reflection symmetry of the electromagnetic force.  So it was assumed the weak force implied by Fermi's explanation of beta decay would obey reflection symmetry.  It implied a nuclear particle could not decay into two pions sometimes and three pions at other times since these would generate different parities.  Experimental evidence and conflicts within the associated theories of nuclear physics showed that the parity rule was invalid for Beta decay. 
- abandoning it would allow the tau and theta particles to be merged.  Encouraged by Oppenheimer, the community focused on parity and failures were discovered in a cascade of reports. 

As a result of the challenge to parity, Lee & Yang were Chinese theoretical physicists, driven out of China by the Japanese, who consequently worked at the University of Chicago.  They studied Beta decay, proposing solutions to conserve parity, and after Feynman raised Martin Block's question in response to their ideas, they wrote a further paper: Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions; where they note pseudoscalars will have non-zero average values and suggest experiments to measure the quantities.  They asked Madam Wu to perform an experiment which confirmed the non-zero average values.  With clear confirmation from Wu that parity was not conserved for the weak force, Lee and Yang developed a two-component theory of the neutrino and two new operators P left and P right which transformed a full bispinor into a two component spinor which was only left or right handed.  They provided a copy of this Physical Review paper to Feynman before presenting the ideas at the 1957 Rochester conference. 
looked into the issue and concluded it was likely, writing a paper: Question of Parity Conservation in Weak Interactions, highlighting the lack of experimental evidence for parity and a theory to help experimentalists to test for parity violations.  They convinced Wu to demonstrate experimentally that parity was violated in Beta decay of aligned Cobalt nuclear spins destroyed the assumption that reflection symmetry was conserved in nature.  They showed electrons emerged at an angle phi from the original Cobalt spin more often than emerging along the direction of the Cobalt nuclear spin.  This implied the average value of the pseudoscalar given by projection of the electron's momentum onto the spin of the Cobalt nucleus was not zero which violated reflection symmetry.  Because of Noether's theorem this result undermined the parity rule.  The experiment also implied that electrons have negative (left-hand) helicity with many more electrons detected above the cobalt source when the cobalt was polarized down than when it was polarized up. 
in beta-decay.   The next year, Lee & Yang and Feynman returned to the Rochester conference, where Richard stayed overnight with his sister.  At the conference, Lee & Yang presented a paper: describing a two component model, is a theory proposed by Lee and Yang to explain the continuous energy spectrum of Beta decay and Wu's finding of parity violation.  Wu's demonstration that electrons are left handed led Lee and Wang to propose that all neutrinos have left-handed helicity and all anti-neutrino, right.  By 1958 neutrono helicity had been measured experimentally confirming it being left-handed.  The four component Dirac bispinor can be represented with two Weyl spinors.  And the near zero mass of the neutrino allows the two coupled equations to become decoupled eigenvalue equations for helicity: one right handed and the other left handed.  Since all neutrinos are left-handed, the right handed equation's spinor components are zero, leaving a two component theory of the neutrino. 
of the Neutrino is a light, weakly interacting neutral fermion, proposed by Pauli in 1933 and is key to Fermi's theory of Beta decay.  Lee and Yang developed the two component theory of the Neutrino which represented its helicity effectively.  All neutrinos are left handed spinors.  The neutrino was experimentally confirmed in 1956. 
and two new operators.  They had provided Richard with a copy of this 1957 Physical Review paper.  Richard felt are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
scared, asserting he could not understand what Lee & Yang proposed.  His sister pushed him to change his attitude: act like a student having fun, read every line and equation of the Lee & Yang paper; he would understand it.  And he did: in this happy is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.   emotional state, Lee & Yang's proposal reminded Richard of old work he had played with on left and right unsymmetrical equations; the solution became much simpler.  And he developed additional insights about what was happening: everything was coupled to the left; this was true for the electron and for the muon is a Fermionic lepton.  It is an elementary particle with a negative charge and half spin. 
.  All muons would have to be full.  And he could see what still seemed conflicted: for the proton and the neutron is an electrically neutral fermion with half spin, which obeys the exclusion principle and at rest is a magnetic dipole.  It was proposed by Pauli to explain the continuous beta decay spectrum to maintain the conservation of energy by matching the energy of the electron and neutron, and the wrong statistics in the nucleus.  Actually the conservation of mass needed the addition of another particle the neutrino, which Pauli also proposed.  The neutron was experimentally confirmed in 1932 by Chadwick. 
his developing theory didn't match what was known about their coupling - there was a statistically significant 9% error.  He reported his ideas back to the community at the conference, and then went to Brazil for the summer. 

After Richard returned from Brazil he reviewed the confusion of facts with Caltech's experimental physicists who made him aware of Gell-mann abandoning another former premise of beta-decay of the neutron is an electrically neutral fermion with half spin, which obeys the exclusion principle and at rest is a magnetic dipole.  It was proposed by Pauli to explain the continuous beta decay spectrum to maintain the conservation of energy by matching the energy of the electron and neutron, and the wrong statistics in the nucleus.  Actually the conservation of mass needed the addition of another particle the neutrino, which Pauli also proposed.  The neutron was experimentally confirmed in 1932 by Chadwick. 
: it is not S and T; but V and A of the Weak force was Feynman and Gell-mann's enhancement to Lee and Yang's two component neutrino theory.  He used their new operators, P right and P left, to replace the full bispinors of the massive leptons in the weak interactions with their left handed projection: i is an element of {V, A}; while the right handed projection: i element of {S, T, P}; is ignored as Wu's experiment required.  This results in the Beta decay Hamiltonian formalism having the form: H weak = G(V)/2 [ubar(p) gamma(mu) U(n)] [ubar(e) gamma**(mu) (1-gamma5) u(v)] + G(A)/2 [ubar(p) gamma5 gamma(mu) U(n)] [ubar(e) gamma**(mu) (1-gamma5) u(v)] + hermitian conjugate  .  Feynman realized his ideas were consistent: fully and simply describing the details of beta decay.  He had identified the workings of a fundamental law was originally implied by the initial realistic explanations of Beta decay: Fermi, Lee & Yang's two component neutrino, Feynman's V-A theory; to understand and explain the continuous electron energy spectra.  This spectra which had been demonstrated by Chadwick in 1914, was generated during such decays, building on Pauli's proposed existence of the neutron [and neutrino] in the atomic nucleus, which allowed energy conservation to be maintained.  It was found that the weak force violates the reflection symmetry of Noether and the implied parity conservation.  Over twenty years these explanations evolved to integrate the physical theories of the Weak force and electromagnetism and drove physicists towards a more coherent understanding of the universe. 
.  Previously Richard had taken someone else's theory and improved the method of calculation, or taken an equation and explained how a phenomenon works, using it. 

Feynman was keen to work through all the implications of his ideas and validate them through checking the mathematics.  But he had forgotten to reconnect with a lady-friend, who insisted on coming over and interrupting him.  He recalls he got very angry and upset.  His big discovery was exciting and more important than the lady to him at that moment.  It was difficult and he eventually got her to leave. 

The Caltech experimentalists alerted Richard to a change in the experimentally determined value of a beta-decay constant he had used in his calculations.  It had changed by 7%.  It turned out to improve his predictions so they aligned with experimental data within 2%.  He was happy to assume this was due to measurement error but it was later removed by an update to the theory. 

Feynman and Gell-mann published a paper on their theory and then received a worrying letter from a great experimental physicist, Telegdi, who wrote "The F-G (Feynman - Gell-mann) theory of Beta decay is no F-G."  After a few days Telegdi wrote again explaining he now agreed with the new theory.  He had disregarded the detail that proton recoil from the neutron was not the same in all directions.  Using the new theory he could account for this and the results aligned with the theory. 

Professor Bacher wondered when the incorrect assumption about proton-neutron coupling being T, rather than V, first occurred.  Feynman looked back at the early papers and realized he had read that paper, and now recalled that he had seen the premise of T coupling was based on one final point in a graph, and thought "that can't be right."  If it was clear there would be a further point confirming the measurement.  But in exploring beta-decay, Feynman had just accepted the assertions from the current literature without going back to check on the foundation.  He
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
changed his approach from that learning experience


256 Thirteen times
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
recalls being asked by a teacher to give a lecture at a public school.   Richard agreed to do the task pro-bono, but when the man insisted he would be paid $50, Richard realized he was dealing with local government and once again setup a bargain through the man: he would perform the lecture as long as he only had to sign his name 13 times; which turned out to be the exact number of times he had to sign forms to be allowed to do the lecture and receive the check - just. 

258 It Sounds Greek to Me!
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was asked to participate in a meeting on gravity, being held at the University of North Carolina.  He could not attend the first day of the meeting so flew to the airport alone and asked the dispatcher for a taxi to take him to the meeting.  Was he going to the State University of North Carolina at Raleigh, or the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill? Richard had no idea and had not thought to bring any detail that would clarify his destination.  So he asked the dispatcher if he recollected seeing lots of men with their heads in the air, not paying attention to where they were going, talking to each other saying: 'G-mu-nu, G-mu-nu'; the prior day.  So he was sent to Chapel Hill to the conference. 

260 But Is It Art?
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
describes meeting Jirayr Zorthian (Jerry), an artist who became a close friend and taught Richard to draw: Jerry never criticized, always found positives in Richard's art work, and explained how these were benefiting the drawings; so it was fun.  Not at all like Feynman's experience at school.  He got so enthusiastic he even paid ICS for a very good course on art.  With Jerry, he patiently
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
practiced the assignments, discussed his efforts with Jerry, and learned from the feedback
.  In return he tried to teach Jerry about physics, but Jerry was too easily distracted. 

Richard wanted to express his joy at the underlying mathematical beauty of the physical world.  So he patiently applied himself and became very competent.  He attended Pasadena Art Museum's drawing classes, finding he was slow, embarrassed and struggled initially, but with practice he improved although he noticed as he tried to represent real beauty his attempts still looked wrong.  Jerry's wife told him the models would pose nude if he asked them, so he did.  He noted that even very beautiful professional models who he drew felt bad about perfect aspects of their own bodies.  He compared his experience of how physics was taught: lots of tools and techniques are offered to the students to experiment with, they are told how to do things, and there is no link to spirit; with teaching art: can't tell people what to do; who knows what will work!  He began to appreciate fine art.  He was happy to find that he enjoyed the works painted by the old masters except for the parts painted by their students. 

He started to display and to sell his art, under the name Ofey, and found it pleasing when people desired the works he had created.  It allowed him to see how different parts of society views art and nudity, including the deeply conflicted views held by the same people. 

He discovered although he could eventually draw well he did not understand art.  Many of the artists he met were fakers, and the society's wealthy is schematically useful information and its equivalent, schematically useful energy, to paraphrase Beinhocker.  It is useful because an agent has schematic strategies that can utilize the information or energy to extend or leverage control of the cognitive niche.    and powerful, who were interested in better
E O. Wilson argues that campfire gatherings on the savanna supported the emergence of human creativity.  This resulted in man building cultures and later exploring them, and their creator, through the humanities.  Wilson identifies the transformative events, but he notes many of these are presently ignored by the humanities.  So he calls for a change of approach. 

He:
  • Explores creativity: how it emerged from the benefits of becoming an omnivore hunter gatherer, enabled by language & its catalysis of invention, through stories told in the evening around the campfire. He notes the power of fine art, but suggests music provides the most revealing signature of aesthetic surprise. 
  • Looks at the current limitations of the humanities, as they have suffered through years of neglect.  
  • Reviews the evolutionary processes of heredity and culture:
    • Ultimate causes viewed through art, & music
    • The bedrock of:
      • Ape senses and emotions,
      • Creative arts, language, dance, song typically studied by humanities, & 
      • Exponential change in science and technology.  
    • How the breakthrough from our primate past occurred, powered by eating meat, supporting: a bigger brain, expanded memory & language. 
    • Accelerating changes now driven by genetic cultural coevolution.  
    • The impact on human nature.  
  • Considers our emotional attachment to the natural world: hunting, gardens; we are destroying. 
  • Reviews our love of metaphor, archetypes, exploration, irony, and considers the potential for a third enlightenment, supported by cooperative action of humanities and science

Following our summary of his arguments RSS frames these from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory:
  • The humanities are seen to be a functionalist framework for representing the cultural CAS while 
  • Wilson's desire to integrate the humanities and science gains support from viewing the endeavor as a network of layered CAS. 

integrating art and science
, did not understand either subject. 

279 Is Electricity Fire?
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
jokes that he got infected with a disease of middle age, discussing: philosophy, religion and economics; during THE 50s.  And so he was asked to participate in a meeting on The Ethics of Equality, in New York City. 

Having agreed to attend the meeting he received a background reading list and was disturbed to discover he had not read any of the books.  He went to the meeting feeling are subjective models: sad, glad, mad, scared, surprised, and compassionate; of the organism and its proximate environment, including ratings of situations signalled by broadly distributed chemicals and neural circuits.  These feelings become highly salient inputs, evolutionarily associated, to higher level emotions encoded in neural circuits: amygdala, and insula.  Deacon shows James' conception of feeling can build sentience.  Damasio, similarly, asserts feelings reveal to the conscious mind the subjective status of life: good, bad, in between; within a higher organism.  They especially indicate the affective situation within the old interior world of the viscera located in the abdomen, thorax and thick of the skin - so smiling makes one feel happy; but augmented with the reports from the situation of the new interior world of voluntary muscles.  Repeated experiences build intermediate narratives, in the mind, which reduce the salience.  Damasio concludes feelings relate closely and consistently with homeostasis, acting as its mental deputies once organisms developed 'nervous systems' about 600 million years ago, and building on the precursor regulatory devices supplied by evolution to social insects and prokaryotes and leveraging analogous dynamic constraints.  Damasio suggests feelings contribute to the development of culture:
  • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
  • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
  • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
ignorant and determined to keep quiet and listen.  He found the older regulars had already met and written a position paper.  This meeting was to get younger people from different academic disciplines to discuss.  There were two aspects:
  1. Discussion of ethics and equality
  2. Dialogue between people of different fields to demonstrate a way forward; his view of the second was if it works it works.  And he did not understand the problem involved in the first. 
His subgroup was to discuss ethics and equality in education, where he observed each person, including himself, talked about their approach to their own subject, and talked past each other.  But while the other people then asserted they had reached agreement he disagreed.  They asked him to write-up his position: education increases differences between people; the realm of education highlights the complexity, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos
of the world; which they thanked him for and tabled for a subsequent meeting. 

The stenographer asked him what his job was.  He explained he was a physics professor, and she replied that he was the only attendee whose words were understandable to her.  He agreed noting that no one wanted to define any of the terms they used.  They used this obliqueness as a strategy to present themselves as distant experts, protected by this
Barriers are particular types of constraints on flows.  They can enforce separation of a network of agents allowing evolution to build diversity.  Examples of different types of barriers: physical barriers, chemical molecules can form membranes, probability based, cell membranes can include controllable channels, eukaryotes leverage membranes, symbiosis, human emotions, chess, business; and their effects are described. 
barrier to entry


At the formal dinner the speaker argued that there was one pie of resources in the world which was distributed inequitably, so the conference should recommend the West give some 'stuff' back to the rest.  Richard disagreed with the other participants.  He had concluded capital is the sum total nonhuman assets that can be owned and exchanged on some market according to Piketty.  Capital includes: real property, financial capital and professional capital.  It is not immutable instead depending on the state of the society within which it exists.  It can be owned by governments (public capital) and private individuals (private capital).   accumulation was necessary to provide the power to make stuff
Robert Gordon argues that the inventions of the second industrial revolution were the foundation for American economic growth.  Gordon shows how flows of people into difficult rural America built a population base which then took the opportunity to move on to urban settings: Houses, Food in supermarkets, Clothes in department stores; that supported increasing productivity and standard of living.  The deployment of nationwide networks: Rail, Road, Utilities; terminating in the urban housing and work places allowing the workers to leverage time saving goods and services, which helped grow the economy. 

Gordon describes the concomitant transformation of:
  • Communications and advertising
  • Credit and finance
  • Public health and the health care network 
  • Health insurance
  • Education
  • Social and welfare services

Counter intuitively the constraints introduced before and in the Great Depression and the demands of World War 2 provide the amplifiers that drive the inventions deeply and fully into every aspect of the economy between 1940 and 1970 creating the exceptional growth and standard of living of post war America. 

Subsequently the rate of growth was limited until the shift of women into the workplace and the full networking of voice and data supported the Internet and World Wide Web completed the third industrial revolution, but the effects were muted by the narrow reach of the technologies. 

The development of Big Data, Robots, and Artificial Intelligence may support additional growth, but Gordon is unconvinced because of the collapse of the middle class. 

Following our summary of Gordon's book RSS frames his arguments from the perspective of complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. 

Science and technology catalyzed this process


Feynman found the devious strategies of other people practicing the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors.   made him angry is an emotion which protects a person who has been cheated by a supposed friend.  When the exploitation of the altruism is discovered, Steven Pinker explains, the result is a drive for moralistic aggression to hurt the cheater.  Anger is mostly experienced as a rapid wave that then quickly dissipates.  When it is repressed, for example by a strong moral sense (superego), it can sustain, inducing long term stress. 
and disturbed, so he subsequently avoided participating in them. 

Richard had stayed at the Jewish Theological Seminary, where he found the students were keen to ask his advice.  But he discovered that their interest was to understand how to better leverage the complex, M. Mitchell Waldrop describes a vision of complexity via:
  • Rich interactions that allow a system to undergo spontaneous self-organization
  • Systems that are adaptive
  • More predictability than chaotic systems by bringing order and chaos into
  • Balance at the edge of chaos
teachings and
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
of the Talmud in contemporary society.  Once again they developed these skills into an obtuse art.  But Richard did see value in their assertion that Jewish people were disproportionately involved in theoretical physics because of their families respect for learning. 

288 Judging Books by Their Covers
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
reflects on the terrible design of a physics text book.  One of its examples juxtaposes four scenarios: a windup toy, an automobile, a boy riding a bicycle, etc..  They argued that each example was driven by energy.  For Feynman this was a terrible strategy.  It did not explain what energy was.  And Feynman notes the explanation was problematic since what is really happening is that entropy is increasing.  The textbook developers didn't really understand the physics they were trying to explain. 
Feynman recollects how his father would talk to him about how the world operates.  In an analogy demonstrating how learning should happen, he starts with his father noting: "What makes [the windup toy] go? Everything goes because the sun is shining."  Then Richard was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
would have fun discussing, with his father, the proposal:
  • "No, the toy goes because the spring is wound up." 
  • "How did the spring get wound up?"  "I wound it up." 
  • "And how did you get moving?"  "From eating." 
  • "And food grows only because the sun is shining.  So it's because the sun is shining that all these things are moving."  Feynman was able to realize that motion is simply the transformation of the sun's power. 
303 Alfred Nobel's Other Mistake
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
enjoyed talking about physics to school and university student physics societies.  But once he became a Nobel laureate it got in the way:
  • Non-physicists wanted to attend,
  • He didn't know his audience, and at what level to talk about physics,
  • So he tried pretending it was not him presenting, but when the administrators found out they would be upset. 
He had a wealthy is schematically useful information and its equivalent, schematically useful energy, to paraphrase Beinhocker.  It is useful because an agent has schematic strategies that can utilize the information or energy to extend or leverage control of the cognitive niche.    engineer friend who asserted people who sponsored prizes were hiding something. 

He was disturbed about winning the prize, but was assured it would be more trouble to refuse it.  He didn't like the pomp and ceremony and was pleased when the Swedish ambassador's celebration party for him was abandoned.  

He felt hypocritical in giving a speech of thanks to the king of Sweden - accepting from a young age his father's maxim that in or out of uniform the person is just the same.  But he eventually enjoyed the trip, where he discussed cultural is how we do and think about things, transmitted by non-genetic means as defined by Frans de Waal.  CAS theory views cultures as operating via memetic schemata evolved by memetic operators to support a cultural superorganism.  Evolutionary psychology asserts that human culture reflects adaptations generated while hunting and gathering.  Dehaene views culture as essentially human, shaped by exaptations and reading, transmitted with support of the neuronal workspace and stabilized by neuronal recycling.  Damasio notes prokaryotes and social insects have developed cultural social behaviors.  Sapolsky argues that parents must show children how to transform their genetically derived capabilities into a culturally effective toolset.  He is interested in the broad differences across cultures of: Life expectancy, GDP, Death in childbirth, Violence, Chronic bullying, Gender equality, Happiness, Response to cheating, Individualist or collectivist, Enforcing honor, Approach to hierarchy; illustrating how different a person's life will be depending on the culture where they are raised.  Culture:
  • Is deployed during pregnancy & childhood, with parental mediation.  Nutrients, immune messages and hormones all affect the prenatal brain.  Hormones: Testosterone with anti-Mullerian hormone masculinizes the brain by entering target cells and after conversion to estrogen binding to intracellular estrogen receptors; have organizational effects producing lifelong changes.  Parenting style typically produces adults who adopt the same approach.  And mothering style can alter gene regulation in the fetus in ways that transfer epigenetically to future generations!  PMS symptoms vary by culture. 
  • Is also significantly transmitted to children by their peers during play.  So parents try to control their children's peer group.  
  • Is transmitted to children by their neighborhoods, tribes, nations etc. 
  • Influences the parenting style that is considered appropriate. 
  • Can transform dominance into honor.  There are ecological correlates of adopting honor cultures.  Parents in honor cultures are typically authoritarian. 
  • Is strongly adapted across a meta-ethnic frontier according to Turchin.  
  • Across Europe was shaped by the Carolingian empire. 
  • Can provide varying levels of support for innovation.  Damasio suggests culture is influenced by feelings: 
    • As motives for intellectual creation: prompting detection and diagnosis of homeostatic deficiencies, identifying desirable states worthy of creative effort.
    • As monitors of the success and failure of cultural instruments and practices
    • As participants in the negotiation of adjustments required by the cultural process over time 
  • Produces consciousness according to Dennet. 
achievement with the Japanese ambassador.  Richard noted how Japan had developed itself so rapidly to become such a modern & important country in the world.  He asked him what is the aspect and character of the Japanese people that made it possible for the Japanese to do that?  The ambassador responded:
On the way back to the US is the United States of America.   Richard called in at CERN where the students insisted on his returning to his informal self. 

Richard joked that the Nobel did get him and Gwyneth a trip to Brazil, where he was guest of honor at the Carnival.  But it turned out he was a replacement for Gina Lollobrigida, who cancelled at the last minute, the Brazilian people weren't impressed, so the minister of tourism got fired. 

313 Bringing Culture to the Physicists
When Nina Byers, became the leader of the physics colloquium, she decided to expand its remit from purely technical discussions to integration with the humanities are the study of humans as a collection.  It now includes philosophy, history and literature.  At the time of Pogio Bracciolini its limited focus was on ancient artifacts and ancient texts that illuminated details of Latin language.  E.O. Wilson argues it represents the human capacity for symbolic language, coevolving with the structure of the brain.  He asserts this freed the mind to be creative, entering any imagined world.  This is empowering, except we retain the emotions of our ancient primate ancestors.  .  Leveraging the proximity of UCLA, where Byers was a professor, to Mexico she decided to sponsor a lecture on the mathematics and astronomy of the Myans.  By this time Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
was deeply cynical about the approach of academics in the humanities.  But when Byers asked Brown's Neugebauer for a reference to a West coast expert who could give her lecture to physicists the expert on Babylonian mathematics referred her to Richard.

He explains why Neugebauer picked him.  During his honeymoon with Mary Lou in Mexico and nearby countries, she wanted to share her interest in art-history and took him on a tour of the proximate museums and pyramids, but all the physical action soon had Richard exhausted.  He had been interested by an exhibit at one of the museums, of the Villacorta copy of the Dresden Codex is a book written by the Mayans that was displayed in the museum in Dresden.  It contains many strange symbols, pictures, bars and dots, describing the Mayans understanding of the phases of the planet Venus.  Many copies have been made, including one by Villacorta that is used in a Guatemalan museum to recall the mathematics and astronomy of the Mayans. 
, because it included many mathematical puzzles and codes, and so purchased a copy.  While Mary Lou continued to explore the Pyramids, he had fun is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.   in the hotel room, breaking the codes, rather successfully.  And he noticed the Spanish explanation included with his copy misrepresented what the codes represented.  Richard subsequently read a lot about the Mayans.  He also studied a lot of other Codex including other copies of the Dresden.  Often these new discoveries were obvious fakes, copying bits of the Dresden codex's description of Venus, but pretending to be about other phenomena. 

Richard gave a two hour lecture to the physics colloquium: Deciphering Mayan Hieroglyphics; supported by Mayan artifacts protected by uniformed guards, in which he included advice on how to spot a fake codex. 

318 Found Out in Paris
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
describes a series of fun is an emotion which functions to mobilize the mind to seek capabilities and resources that support Darwinian fitness.  Today happiness is associated with Epicurean ideas that were rediscovered during the renaissance and promoted by Thomas Jefferson.  But natural selection has 'designed' happiness to support hunter-gatherer fitness in the African savanna.  It is assessed: Relative to other's situations, Based on small gains or losses relative to one's current situation; and so what makes us [un-]happy and our responses can seem a counter-productive treadmill.  For Pleistocene hunter-gatherers in the savanna there were many ways for losses to undermine fitness and so losses still make us very unhappy.  Smoking, drinking and excessive eating were not significant and so don't make us unhappy even though they impact longevity.   percussion events:
  • At Los Alamos, he found a drum kit at the abandoned school, which he took into the woods to play loudly and sing.  He would try to sound like a Native American.  Some of his team mates thought it was a real native and identified a particularly insular and noble individual.  But their wives knew better, asserting: it was Feynman - he likes to beat drums
  • Back at Cornell he played a drum in the basement of the flat he rented.  The landlady phoned him while he was playing.  He was pleased to relate that rather than scold him, she asked if she could listen directly when he played. 
  • A lady from the Belgium Congo (DRC), gave him some records of African drumming.  He loved to try and copy the rhythms describes the duration of a series of notes and the way they group together. 
    of the Watusi.  And eventually learned a broad repertoire.  
  • At Caltech, he would go to Sunset Strip.  He came across a group of drummers being led by Ukonu, a Nigerian medical student, who was an exceptional percussionist, and became Richard's teacher.  Richard and Ukonu would do demonstrations of African rhythms at the local schools.  
  • Caltech students put on plays, and asked him to act as part of the nightclub band, where he would play the bongos.  The rest of the band members were trained musicians who could sight read.  But he coped and with his drumming friend was asked by the choreographer to develop some percussion for a dance group she was moving to.  It turned out the dance group and their rhythms kept winning competitions until the group went to compete internationally in Paris.  It was only at this point that the group lost the top placements.  The feedback was the music was an issue: it was missing controlled crescendos.  Feynman writes "When we came to some really cultured people in Paris, who knew music from drums, we flunked out."

330 Altered States
Feynman was very excited to meet John Lilly who was experimenting with inducing hallucinations.  Richard wanted to do it!  He uses Lilly's tanks and after a few sessions can induce a state of hallucination, where he can move his subjective experience outside of his body are neurons which fire whenever a higher animal occupies a certain location in space.  Place cells are highly invariant over a variety of sensory cues, and they even maintain their space-selective firing as the animal wanders around in full darkness.  They encode where the animal thinks it is.  And the same cells associate a time stamp with the memories. 
.  He was only able to do this in the tanks but was told by Baba Ram Das that he could also use
Daniel Goleman and Richard Davidson describe a scientific investigation of meditation's impact on the brain.  They introduce the book by describing their experiences with meditation, science and the research establishment, their friendship, how meditation is now used in two distinct ways: deep - leading to altered traits & wide - that can reach the multitudes; which the book reviews as it critiques the claims and research used to back them up. 

Goleman and Davidson describe meeting as Harvard psychology graduate students, interested in consciousness, and how minds work.  They rebel against the behavioral orthodoxy, visit Asia and discover the Eastern tradition of exploring and altering the mind. 

Goleman had travelled to Sri Lanka to understand an Asian model of the mind, which he presented to the undergraduates at Harvard.  Goleman and Davidson developed it into a shared vision of consciousness.  It took over twenty years for scientific theory and experimental data to catch up and align with this model.  Much of the prior experimental data had to be abandoned. 

They introduce meditation's impact on the amygdala responding to pain and stress. 

They look at the changes in:
  • Stress
  • Compassion
  • Attention
  • Self-awareness; and the potential for use of mediation in psychiatry. 
And they warn of the occurrence of dark nights. 
They detail how scientists were able to study the brains of Tibetan meditation masters, starting with Mingyur Rinpoche, and detect meditation altering traits. 
Finally they discuss the potential benefits of meditation and strategies to distribute it broadly to a busy America. 

meditation
to induce this state, but Richard writes that he never practiced.  He gets into discussions about the reality of experience compared to reality described by experimental science.  And using the analogy of a digital computer wonders about the mechanism of memory in the brain includes functionally different types: Declarative, or explicit, (episodic and semantic), Implicit, Procedural, Spatial, Temporal, Verbal; Hebb suggested that glutamate receptive neurons learn by (NMDA channel based) synaptic strengthening: short term memory.  This was shown to happen for explicit memory formation in the hippocampus.  This strengthening is sustained by subsequent LTP.  The non-real-time learning and planning processes operate through consciousness using the working memory structures, and then via sleep, the salient ones are consolidated while the rest are destroyed and garbage collected.   in the brain

338 Cargo Cult Science
Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
describes a significant problem of contemporary science that worries him.  For example he notes that reading scores are flat or going down, even though education researchers continuously 'improve' the methods.  A teacher with a good idea is forced to conform to the requirements of the school system.  He labels it Cargo Cult Science but notes it has all the strategies of a successful witch doctor or marketing practitioner.  Feynman asserts it is missing an essential aspect - scientific integrity:
  • Report everything that could make an experiment invalid
  • Ensure it can be repeated and verified
  • Everyone must understand what has been eliminated.
  • Details that imply doubt in the result must be highlighted
  • A proposed theory should detail all the facts that agree with it and all the facts that disagree with it.  And it must predict some other phenomena in addition to the aspects that were part of the design
Ensuring scientific integrity is particularly difficult because:
Feynman describes a great 1937 psychology experiment.  Mr. Young was experimenting with rats.  Feynman notes that for subsequent experiments of this type it is important to repeat Young's work to establish a baseline, since he discovered all the things you have to do to discover something about rats.  Looking at subsequent research, Feynman found that experiments of this type did not control for all these details - so what were they doing? 

Feynman hopes that young scientists will obtain the freedom to maintain their scientific integrity, without organizational or financial pressures to win, and seek the truth. 


This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory provides an organizing framework that is used by 'life.'  It can be used to evaluate and rank models that claim to describe our perceived reality.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents.  It highlights the constraints that shape CAS and so predicts their form.  A proposal that does not conform is wrong. 

John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
comparative analysis suggests various contributors to Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
's creation of applied mathematical and modeling tools to explore the puzzles of quantum physics:

Richard Feynman was a Nobel laureate in physics, who developed methods to describe the behavior of electrons and photons, formalized as QED by Freeman Dyson, and formulated quantum mechanics in terms of Hugh Everett's histories.  His personality enneagram, is typed as an enthusiast, which aligns with his seeking fun, but with coaching in science from his father, a joking mother, and an early drive to read, understand and apply: engineering, science and mathematics; to have fun, he was able to slow down his thoughts and integrate into a creative, productive investigator. 
's light hearted auto-biographic study describes his conclusions regarding the importance of fun in scientific and artistic creations. 




























































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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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