Barriers
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
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Barriers to flows

Summary
Barriers are particular types of constraints on
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
flows
.  They can enforce separation of a network of agents allowing evolution to build diversity.  Examples of different types of barriers and their effects are described. 
Introduction
The existence of barriers blocking
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
flows
, allow multiple discrete environments to exist within which separate
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
complex adaptive systems (CAS)
can develop. 

Physical barriers including mountain ranges, seas, and rivers reflect the dynamic nature of the Earth's crust shifting around.  The barriers will appear and disappear over time.  In consequence CAS may become split-up and separated.  Later they may be rejoined.  The effect can be
This page reviews Christensen's disruption of a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism is discussed with examples from biology and business. 
disruptive


The presence of barriers can be viewed as partitioning the environment.  As described above physical forces can produce these effects.  However, random networks of simple Boolean elements can also produce
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
attractor regions, where the network state will remain unless perturbed.  Equally significant are barriers created by
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
constraints
generated through the interactions of sustained interacting dynamic flows. 

Low probability of occurrence can be a significant barrier to action.  When energy is required to move molecules, multiple atoms bonded together.  The physical and chemical phenomena associated with the molecule such as charge, size, shape, and potential energy reflect the constituent atoms, the types of bonds between them and the topology of the bonding.  Charged molecules dissolve in aqueous solutions (water).  Uncharged molecules dissolve in lipid bilayers.   so they can collide, and hence react, the probability of reaction becomes associated with an energy barrier.  Reducing the energy required to create a collision in effect removes the barrier.  Many
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
catalysts
work in this way increasing the probability of a reactive collision between reagents.  Probability based barriers are important in limiting people's ability to share knowledge and to collaborate. 

CAS
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
can also induce barriers to their own flows. 

Molecules, multiple atoms bonded together.  The physical and chemical phenomena associated with the molecule such as charge, size, shape, and potential energy reflect the constituent atoms, the types of bonds between them and the topology of the bonding.  Charged molecules dissolve in aqueous solutions (water).  Uncharged molecules dissolve in lipid bilayers.   vary in the nature of their charges.  The presence of charges on a molecule renders it affected by chemical forces.  Like molecules join together creating phases with the chemical forces creating barriers between the phases.  Membranes, formed from a lipid (fat) bilayer which creates a barrier between aqueous (water soluble) media.  In AWF a key property of membranes - their providing a catalytic environment and supporting the suspension of enzymatically active proteins within the membrane; is simulated with a Workspace list where 'active' structures can be inserted and codelets can detect and act on the structure's active promise configured as an association in the Slipnet.   are a significant phase separating structure in cellular biology.  Lipid, a long chain fatty acid.  Some can bend in the middle resulting in a polar end and a non-polar end.  The charged end of the bent lipids gather together forming a lipid bilayer.  Externally the lipid bilayer appears hydrophobic.  Such lipid bilayers are the foundation of biological membranes. 
molecules with charged ends and uncharged centers coalesce into hydrophobic, environment with neutral molecules dissolved in lipids.  Hydrophobic molecules avoid aqueous solutions (water).   bilayers separating hydrophilic, environment with charged molecules dissolved in aqueous solution (water).  Hydrophilic molecules seek aqueous solutions. 
environments. 

The presence of membrane enclosures allows for division of cells into multiple compartments.  Such eukaryotic, a relatively large multi-component cell type from which yeast and multi-celled plants and animals, including humans, is constructed.  It contains modules including a nucleus and production functions such as mitochondria.   cellular strategies can leverage the
This page discusses the strategy of modularity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The benefits, mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
membrane barriers to support different states in each compartment
.  Multi-cellular systems allow for the replication of plans and structures but different states to exist within each cell of the system. 

Barriers can be total, but often they are leaky.  Much of the flora and fauna that exist on volcanically created islands arrives by chance deposited by birds, driftwood or vehicles.  Having arrived there are likely to be many niches that can be exploited.  Successful breeding soon induces competition.  The niches become important for survival and help drive the selection of life exhibiting competitive advantage in the niche. 

The geologically young lake Victoria is home to a huge number of endemic cichlid fish.  Victoria is a wide shallow basin.  In the past it was connected with the other African great lakes.  They also have cichlid fish.  But the distribution of genes differs.  Physical barriers between the lakes are augmented in the case of Victoria by its width and many isolated reefs as Richard Dawkins explains in The Ancestor's Tale

Cell membranes, formed from a lipid (fat) bilayer which creates a barrier between aqueous (water soluble) media.  In AWF a key property of membranes - their providing a catalytic environment and supporting the suspension of enzymatically active proteins within the membrane; is simulated with a Workspace list where 'active' structures can be inserted and codelets can detect and act on the structure's active promise configured as an association in the Slipnet.   can be made semi-permeable with the insertion of donut shaped molecules that create hydrophilic pores in the lipid bilayer, a long chain fatty acid.  Some can bend in the middle resulting in a polar end and a non-polar end.  The charged end of the bent lipids gather together forming a lipid bilayer.  Externally the lipid bilayer appears hydrophobic.  Such lipid bilayers are the foundation of biological membranes. 
.  There is also the opportunity to use energy to drive a molecular pump which can move reagents across the membrane barrier.  Such channels, an active membrane spanning protein with a central pore through which a targeted ion is driven until the channel is opened by a signal which then allows the ions back across the channel continuing the electro-chemical wave. 
and pumps are often able to be inactivated by phosphorylation is an enzyme which catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a side chain of a specific protein.  When paired with a phosphatase that targets the same protein and side chain it gives the cell a schematically controlled switching capability.  , creating a controlled barrier to the flows.

Symbiosis is a long term situation between two, or more, different agents where the resources of both are shared for mutual benefit.  Some of the relationships have built remarkable dependencies: Tremblaya's partnership with citrus mealybugs and bacterial DNA residing in the mealybug's genome, Aphids with species of secondary symbiont bacteria deployed sexually from a male aphid sperm reservoir and propagated asexually by female aphids only while their local diet induces a dependency.  If the power relations and opportunities change for the participants then they will adapt and the situation may transform into separation, predation or parasitism. 
can introduce barriers of various types:

The
Computational theory of the mind and evolutionary psychology provide Steven Pinker with a framework on which to develop his psychological arguments about the mind and its relationship to the brain.  Humans captured a cognitive niche by natural selection 'building out' specialized aspects of their bodies and brains resulting in a system of mental organs we call the mind. 

He garnishes and defends the framework with findings from psychology regarding: The visual system - an example of natural selections solutions to the sensory challenges of inverse modeling of our environment; Intensions - where he highlights the challenges of hunter gatherers - making sense of the objects they perceive and predicting what they imply and natural selections powerful solutions; Emotions - which Pinker argues are essential to human prioritizing and decision making; Relationships - natural selection's strategies for coping with the most dangerous competitors, other people.  He helps us understand marriage, friendships and war. 

These conclusions allow him to understand the development and maintenance of higher callings: Art, Music, Literature, Humor, Religion, & Philosophy; and develop a position on the meaning of life. 

Complex adaptive system (CAS) modeling allows RSS to frame Pinker's arguments within humanity's current situation, induced by powerful evolved amplifiers: Globalization, Cliodynamics, The green revolution and resource bottlenecks; melding his powerful predictions of the drivers of human behavior with system wide constraints.  The implications are discussed. 

human mind
includes passionate is a doomsday machine emotion, providing the participant in a strategic conflict with a constraint on rational arguments. 
emotions are low level agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism. 
which can act as barriers to conflicting party's strategies by providing a Doomsday Machine.  The doomsday machine architecture integrates a:
  • Signal that advertises the presence of the doomsday machine
  • Machine that once started can't be stopped.  
  • Uncontrollable initiation of the machine based on some constraint. 
  • Catastrophic result for all parties once the machine is started.  There is the potential for both parties to participate in an arms race. 
's constraint can be emotional: Rage is a doomsday machine emotion of uncontrollable righteous anger.  , Vengeance, or vengeance, is a doomsday machine emotion.  In hunter gatherer bands the major constraint on a relative or loved one being murdered was the 'guarantee' of revenge.  Revenge pairs with the emotional signal honor.  It must be advertised and hard to turn off.  Traditional societies incorporate it into legal frameworks as retribution, a legitimate goal of criminal punishment. 
; an agent based institutional strategy such as the police or some physical constraint. 

In chess the rules allow a piece to be positioned to become a barrier to flows through the occupied square. 

In business there are many barriers: 

Barriers enable action and control. 
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integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
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  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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