Flows & control
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
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Flows

Summary
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergence
of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
Introduction
The emergence of persistent patterns, realized in
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
complex adaptive systems (CAS)
, requires the juxta position of resources and environmental
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
phenomena
.  It may also depend on the removal of by-products.  While some situations ensure the ubiquity of the resources, in other situations the CAS must actively gather resources at the points of
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergence
, or act to ensure ubiquity.  Indeed if the flows stop the emergent patterns may vanish and fail to reappear. 

Biochemical systems use the buildup of intermediate products to inhibit the
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
amplification of early stage enzymes
.  It appears necessary to limit the potentially unstable positive feedback effects in case they exhaust resources required to maintain
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
flexibility
and control. 

Neuronal, specialized eukaryotic cells include channels which control flows of sodium and potassium ions across the massively extended cell membrane supporting an electro-chemical wave which is then converted into an outgoing chemical signal transmission from synapses which target nearby neuron or muscle cell receptors.  Neurons are supported by glial cells.  Neurons include a:
  • Receptive element - dendrites
  • Transmitting element - axon and synaptic terminals
  • Highly variable DNA schema using transposons. 
systems transform parallel input signals into neural action potential are the actively generated waves of voltage change across the neuron's membrane that flow down a neuron's axon.  Helmholtz noted that while they propagate far more slowly than electrical transmissions action potentials do not attenuate.  Lord Adrian showed the action potential to be an all-or-nothing signal.  Consequently Adrian extended the neuron doctrine from anatomy to function demonstrating:
  • Sensitivity is indicated by the frequency of transmission of action potentials. 
  • Anatomy indicates the meaning of the signal.  Hodgkin and Huxley's ionic hypothesis completed the characterization of the action potential. 
flows over
The position and operations of different agents within a complex adaptive system (CAS) provide opportunities for strategic advantage.  Examples of CAS agents leveraging their relative positions are described. 
value chain networks


Constraints on flows
Synaptic junctions, a neuron structure which provides a junction with other neurons.  It generates signal molecules, either excitatory or inhibitory, which are kept in vesicles until the synapse is stimulated when the signal molecules are released across the synaptic cleft from the neuron.  The provisioning of synapses is under genetic control and is part of long term memory formation as identified by Eric Kandel.  Modulation signals (from slow receptors) initiate the synaptic strengthening which occurs in memory. 
provide control points of the flows over neural circuits, a network of interconnected neurons which perform signalling, modeling and control functions.  In Cajal's basic neural circuits the signalling is unidirectional.  He identified three classes of neurons in the circuits:
  • Sensory, Interneurons, Motor; which are biochemically distinct and suffer different disease states. 
.  Inhibitory and excitatory synapses, a neuron structure which provides a junction with other neurons.  It generates signal molecules, either excitatory or inhibitory, which are kept in vesicles until the synapse is stimulated when the signal molecules are released across the synaptic cleft from the neuron.  The provisioning of synapses is under genetic control and is part of long term memory formation as identified by Eric Kandel.  Modulation signals (from slow receptors) initiate the synaptic strengthening which occurs in memory. 
allow physical neural structure to amplify, focus or inhibit flows.  The resulting active networks represent as associations of goals, environmental signals, current state, and actions, an element of the
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
schematic plan
dynamically linking a goal with an action. 

Neuron network, a network of interconnected neurons which perform signalling, modeling and control functions.  In Cajal's basic neural circuits the signalling is unidirectional.  He identified three classes of neurons in the circuits:
  • Sensory, Interneurons, Motor; which are biochemically distinct and suffer different disease states. 
flows are controlled by modulation from slow acting signals such as dopamine is a synaptic signal supporting generalized goal-directed behavior & anticipation of reward.  Its significance is that the receptors that detect the signal are of the slow acting type and are used to alter (modulate) the response of fast acting dopaminergic neural circuits in which the receptors are deployed (LTP).  The signal detects significant changes including predictions of models and actual results which differ unexpectedly.  The dopamine network architecture is designed to signal the possibility of any type of reward: Norm violation punishment, Winning a lottery, & Misfortune of an envied competitor.  Dopamine signalling:
  • Rescales continuously to accommodate the range of intensity offered by different stimuli.  So dopamine's responses to any reward habituate.  GABA is released by some tegmental neurons to induce habituation. 
  • Reflects the anticipation of reward.  It supports establishment of a relationship between a signal, working for a reward and obtaining the reward, but subsequently dopamine is mainly released encouraging the work, right after the signal supporting anticipation of the reward.  Anticipation requires learning and is reflected in hippocampus activity.  That explains context dependent cravings.  And the learning architecture means reliable cues become rewarding.  The accumbens supports willpower.  And dopamine
  • Promotes goal-oriented behavior needed to obtain & likely to achieve the reward - through the dopamine projections to the prefrontal cortex.  That makes dopamine central to:
    • Motivation.  This binding fails in depression - due to stress and in anxiety - due to signals from the amygdala.  
    • The prefrontal cortex's mesocortically stimulated support for willpower to act to delay rewards.  To sustain work for delayed rewards additional dopamine is released based on the length of the delay and the rewards uncertainty (modelled in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - which promotes the long term and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex - which promotes the short term) and the anticipated size of the reward (modelled in the accumbens).  Impulsiveness in ADHD is reflected in abnormal dopamine processing.  Addictive drugs bias the dopamine network towards impulsiveness.  
  • Is lowered by certain gene variants which induce: less dopamine in the synapse, fewer receptors, lower responsiveness of receptors; associated with (as tiny effects in hugely varying social scenarios): sensation seeking, risk taking, attentional problems, extroversion; where:
    • The receptor D4's gene shows high variability.  The D47R form is relatively unresponsive to dopamine.  
    • Dopamine is degraded by COMT.  The COMT gene includes a variant which is highly efficient reducing dopamine signalling but with complicating gene/environment interactions.  
    • Dopamine is removed from the synapse by a reuptake transporter DAT. 
, which in particular focuses the network onto the most active network circuits

Support of gathering and transport of resources and by-products can lead to further emergent patterns of control.  Much of the adaptability of CAS
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
comes from the ability to
Barriers are particular types of constraints on flows.  They can enforce separation of a network of agents allowing evolution to build diversity.  Examples of different types of barriers and their effects are described. 
partition the flows
and
Terrence Deacon explores how constraints on dynamic flows can induce emergent phenomena which can do real work.  He shows how these phenomena are sustained.  The mechanism enables the development of Darwinian competition. 
control and constrain
their rates. 

Strategic conflicts, broadly occurring during humanity's hunter gatherer past, supported the development of constraint driven Doomsday Machine emotions are low level agents distributed across the brain and body which associate, via the amygdala and rich club hubs, important environmental signals with encoded high speed sensors, and distributed programs of action to model: predict, prioritize guidance signals, select and respond effectively, coherently and rapidly to the initial signal.  The majority of emotion centered brain regions interface to the midbrain through the hypothalamus.  The most accessible signs of emotions are the hard to control and universal facial expressions.  Emotions provide prioritization for conscious access given that an animal has only one body, but possibly many cells, with which to achieve its highest level goals.  Because of this emotions clash with group goals and are disparaged by the powerful.  Evolutionary psychology argues evolution shaped human emotions during the long period of hunter-gatherer existence in the African savanna.  Human emotions are universal and include: Anger, Appreciation of natural beauty, Disgust, Fear, Gratitude, Grief, Guilt, Happiness, Honor, Jealousy, Liking, Love, Rage, Romantic love, Lust for revenge, Passion, Sadness, Self-control, Shame, Sympathy, Surprise; and the sham emotions and distrust induced by reciprocal altruism.  .  

Chess provides numerous examples of strategies involving the use of:

In business just in time (
This presentation reviews just-in-time manufacturing with analysis based on complex adaptive system (CAS) theory. 
JIT
) strategy the effective layout of flows is important.  Viewing the network as a grid of intersecting process (transportation, queues, and inspections) and operational (resource to product transforms) flows, JIT first aims to reduce the process flows to zero.  The situation is complicated by a dependency on the volume and similarity of the products.  Four types of process result:
  1. Job shop - such as a commercial printer
  2. Batch flow - heavy equipment production
  3. Assembly line - auto assembly
  4. Continuous flow - sugar refinery
When the process is ill defined and looks chaotic expertise can be gained using a job shop layout.  However, with such a layout the process itself is relatively wasteful encouraging transportation, queues and the introduction of errors.  So when the volume and similarity of the products allows, alternative layouts will result in reduced costs. 

When the process is repetitive the flows can be organized so that operations are situated in order, reducing transport to zero. 

For high volumes of flow of 'standard product' specialized infrastructure can be dedicated.  Evolved systems in similar circumstances have developed similar approaches, for example with the human eye are major sensors in primates, based on opsins deployed in the retina & especially fovea, signalling the visual system: Superior colliculi, Thalamus (LGN), Primary visual cortex; and indirectly the amygdala.  They also signal [social] emotional state to other people.  And they have implicit censorious power with pictures of eyes encouraging people within their view to act more honorably.  Eyes are poor scanners and use a saccade to present detail slowly to the fovea.  The eye's optical structures and retina are supported by RPE.  Eyes do not connect to the brain through the brain stem and so still operate in locked-in syndrome.  Evo-devo shows eyes have deep homology.  High pressure within the eye can result in glaucoma.  Genetic inheritance can result in retinoblastoma.  Age is associated with AMD. 
.  

JIT strives for smooth flows, limiting the rates of faster operations, so that queuing is minimized.  JIT demand scheduling by operations once they have completed a previous task provides a simple and effective rate control, analogous to intermediate products inhibiting early stage operations as described above for biochemical systems

In economics supply side theory emphasizes policy measures which affect aggregate supply.  It is a model associated with Arthur Laffer.  Tax cuts are a classical policy measure which the model predicts raises total output by motivating people to work, save and invest more.  The evidence collected after use of these policies undermines these arguments. 
promotes the significance of supply flows.  When agents gain control of important resource flows they obtain a significant competitive advantage. 
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
Infrastructure
becomes a major aspect of strategic theory.  With the potential to increase the rate of flow and reduce the cost also comes the ability to constrain the infrastructure amplifier

Transactional ubiquity
When resources become equivalent within a flow, their increased ubiquity can provide the flow with transactional is an operation which guarantees to complete a defined set of activities or return to the initial state.  For a fee the postal service will ensure that a parcel is delivered to its recipient or will return the parcel to the sender.  To provide the service it may have to undo the act of trying to deliver the parcel with a compensating action.  Since the parcel could be lost or destroyed the service may have to return an equivalent value to the sender. 
properties.  Mechanisms, such as the
This page describes the Adaptive Web framework (AWF) test system and the agent programming framework (Smiley) that supports its operation. 
Example test system statements are included.  To begin a test a test statement is loaded into Smiley while Smiley executes on the Perl interpreter. 
Part of Smiley's Perl code focused on setting up the infrastructure is included bellow. 
The setup includes:
  • Loading the 'Meta file' specification,
  • Initializing the Slipnet, and Workspaces and loading them
  • So that the Coderack can be called. 
The Coderack, which is the focus of a separate page of the Perl frame then schedules and runs the codelets that are invoked by the test statement structures. 
adaptive web framework (AWF) test framework
operon independence and equivalence helps ensure sustained flows for amplifiers, using features of the operon is an addressable control structure which is used in biological cells to control access to other regions of the DNA. 
deployment codelets. 

Control of flow dynamics by signal addition and removal
Biochemical processes use paired kinases is an enzyme which catalyzes the addition of a phosphate group to a side chain of a specific protein.  When paired with a phosphatase that targets the same protein and side chain it gives the cell a schematically controlled switching capability.  and phosphatases is an enzyme which catalyzes the removal of a phosphate group from a side chain of a specific protein.  When paired with a kinase that targets the same protein it gives the cell a schematically controlled switching capability.   to change the
This page reviews the catalytic impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic effects by an agent.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns. 
amplification of enzyme catalysts
.  Its a very general and
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
flexible
control mechanism that occurs repeatedly in
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergent
systems.  Traffic lights are an everyday example.  Production schedules illustrate an industrial use. 

Many adaptive systems handle massive numbers of signals in parallel.  The concurrent presence of many different signals becomes part of the pattern that is represented.  Parallel flows and
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Samuel modeling is described as an approach. 
model
assisted processing enable time critical analysis, action and control. 




























































































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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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