Infrastructure amplifiers
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
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  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
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Statistical force of infrastructure amplifiers

Summary
This page reviews the catalytic, an infrastructure amplifier.   impact of infrastructure on the expression of phenotypic is the system that results from the controlled expression of the genes.  It is typically represented by a bacterial cell or the body of a multi-cell animal or plant.  The point is that the genes provide the control surface and the abstract recipe that has been used to generate the cell. 
effects by an
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agent
.  The infrastructure reduces the cost the agent must pay to perform the selected action.  The catalysis is enhanced by positive returns, W Brian Arthur's conception of how high tech products have positive economic feedback as they deploy.  Classical products such as foods have negative returns to scale since they take increasing amounts of land, and distribution infrastructure to support getting them to market.  High tech products typically become easier to produce or gain from network effects of being connected together overcoming the negative effects of scale.  
Introduction
Depository banks, transport networks and enzymes, a protein with a structure which allows it to operate as a chemical catalyst and a control switch. 
provide structures, within the
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
systems
in which they operate, that enable particular actions to proceed with a lower startup cost, without them being consumed in the action. 

Enzymes provide pockets, on the external surface of folded proteins present amino acids which become catalytic structures.   with environments that are matched with specific resources in the network.  When Brownian motion brings the appropriate resource into the pocket it remains there for a statistically significant period of time.  Hence when two pockets are close by the enzyme enables
Barriers are particular types of constraints on flows.  They can enforce separation of a network of agents allowing evolution to build diversity.  Examples of different types of barriers and their effects are described. 
statistically unlikely Brownian interactions
to happen.  The fact that different enzymic structures can be created
This page discusses the mechanisms and effects of emergence underpinning any complex adaptive system (CAS).  Key research is reviewed. 
emergently
in biochemical systems enables extensive classes of reactions to become more likely to occur. 

The serine proteases demonstrate how the size, shape, polarity and charge of amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.  The 20 main variants differ by the nature of their side chain.  Some are positively charged, others negatively charged.  Some are water seeking while others are fat seeking.  The genetic code mapping of DNA base pair triplets thus specifies the primary sequence of amino-acids in any protein polymer. 
can be leveraged to reduce the entry and exit costs of hydrolysis by a charge relay system.  Charge is relayed from a general base to the hydroxyl of Ser (195) making it very reactive with substrate peptide bonds links two amino-acids together by their C and N terminals.  It orients the side chains.  The resulting polymer has vast degrees of freedom that become limited by the specific side chains that are deployed.  So the DNA sequence mapped through the genetic code is able to generate a vast variety of chemically different poly peptides.  Evolutionarily retained variants include alpha helix, beta sheets, beta bends and many active site structures which in aggregate have proven to be excellent structural and enzymatic building blocks. 
.  The bonds are hydrolized through the enhanced formation of: first a non-covalent intermediate RCO-X.E; and then a tetrahedral intermediate RCO-E via attack by the hydroxyl of the reactive serine 195, with creation of product XH.  Finally the enzyme E and acid RCO2H separate. 

Business meetings share these properties, bringing people into proximity, with clear focus - and encouraging them to remain for a period of time.  Schools and factories bring together people performing repeated operations inducing a lowered cost and higher leverage.  The
Plans change in complex adaptive systems (CAS) due to the action of genetic operations such as mutation, splitting and recombination.  The nature of the operations is described. 
processes adopted
are designed to '
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
program
' the
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
to be independent and equivalent.  The participants at the meetings are experts who can rapidly understand and agree on strategies that benefit all parties. 

Depository banks act as amplifiers due to the typical ratio of deposits to withdrawals.  Since deposits tend to stay within the bank for some time, the cash can be lent out to a borrower.  The borrowers' use of the cash will typically result in some party to the transaction is an operation which guarantees to complete a defined set of activities or return to the initial state.  For a fee the postal service will ensure that a parcel is delivered to its recipient or will return the parcel to the sender.  To provide the service it may have to undo the act of trying to deliver the parcel with a compensating action.  Since the parcel could be lost or destroyed the service may have to return an equivalent value to the sender. 
re-depositing the cash.  This cycle typically goes round generating about 10 times the cash of the original deposit within the banks books.  This amplification of the amount of cash enables credit to be extended to catalyze, an infrastructure amplifier.   further actions within the economy.  Similarly to the emergent nature of the creation of new types of transactions that an enzyme can perform financial transaction types emerge extending the types of transaction that can be encouraged by the financial system's amplifying effect. 

The
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
interconnection of emergent transport networks
ramps this property.  A power law describes the relation of the transport force to the number of nodes that are interconnected. 

Access to these amplifiers is still limited.  The amplification property makes the adaptation in evolutionary biology is a trait that increased the number of surviving offspring in an organism's ancestral lineage.  In Deacon's conception of evolution an adaptation is the realization of a set of constraints on candidate mechanisms, and so long as these constraints are maintained, other features are arbitrary. 
unstable.  Part of the
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
adaptive plan
typically provides arbitration mechanisms to ensure the amplifiers are shared - hopefully to the overall benefit of the system.  Budgeting schemes can support this goal. 

Independence & equivalence
Infrastructure amplification operates on independent and equivalent resources.  Since the resources may not be identical, adaptive systems have leveraged
Rather than oppose the direct thrust of some environmental flow agents can improve their effectiveness with indirect responses.  This page explains how agents are architected to do this and discusses some examples of how it can be done. 
indirect associations
between the reagents and independent and equivalent partner reagents:
  • Cellular systems associate reagents with ubiquitous phosphorylated nucleotides: ADP, GDP; 
  • Banks associate real goods with monetary values. 
  • Companies are associated through valuation by Investment banks and market traders with monetary values. 
The association allows the operation to be transactionalized is an operation which guarantees to complete a defined set of activities or return to the initial state.  For a fee the postal service will ensure that a parcel is delivered to its recipient or will return the parcel to the sender.  To provide the service it may have to undo the act of trying to deliver the parcel with a compensating action.  Since the parcel could be lost or destroyed the service may have to return an equivalent value to the sender. 
, with low probability of failure to supply the independent and equivalent resource. 

The role of infrastructure amplification is to alter the statistical probabilities of specific progress. This enables various
This page discusses the benefits of constraining the flows in a complex adaptive system (CAS) until you are ready to act. 
negative mechanisms
to have a
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
controlling effect
while enough progress is still made to sustain the system.  The emergent nature of the creation of specific amplifiers provides the system with great
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
flexibility


























































































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integrating quality appropriate for each market
 
This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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