Indirection
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Strategic indirection

Summary
Rather than oppose the direct thrust of some environmental
Flows of different kinds are essential to the operation of complex adaptive systems (CAS). 
Example flows are outlined.  Constraints on flows support the emergence of the systems.  Examples of constraints are discussed. 
flow
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
can improve their effectiveness with indirect responses.  This page explains how agents are architected to do this and discusses some examples of how it can be done. 
Introduction
Complex adaptive systems (
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
)
This page discusses the interdependence of perception and representation in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Hofstadter and Mitchell's research with Copycat is reviewed. 
derive
their
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
actions
from
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
plans
selected based on
Agents use sensors to detect events in their environment.  This page reviews how these events become signals associated with beneficial responses in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  CAS signals emerge from the Darwinian information model.  Signals can indicate decision summaries and level of uncertainty. 
environmental signals
.   The use of
The agents in complex adaptive systems (CAS) must model their environment to respond effectively to it.  Samuel modeling is described as an approach. 
models
by CAS allows for great
To benefit from shifts in the environment agents must be flexible.  Being sensitive to environmental signals agents who adjust strategic priorities can constrain their competitors. 
flexibility
in the situations that the systems can operate within.  Indirect
Agents use sensors to detect events in their environment.  This page reviews how these events become signals associated with beneficial responses in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  CAS signals emerge from the Darwinian information model.  Signals can indicate decision summaries and level of uncertainty. 
associations
allow the models and actions to apply in more situations. 

Indirection typically depends on introducing associations and models into the mechanisms that agents use to perform actions.  The models typically associate signals with goals and predicted positive or negative effects.  The introduction of new associations and the avoidance of raising signals to the developed sensors will often have major effects on the agent's decision making. 

DNA (DNA), a polymer composed of a chain of deoxy ribose sugars with purine or pyrimidine side chains.  DNA naturally forms into helical pairs with the side chains stacked in the center of the helix.  It is a natural form of schematic string.  The purines and pyrimidines couple so that AT and GC pairs make up the stackable items.  A code of triplets of base pairs (enabling 64 separate items to be named) has evolved which now redundantly represents each of the 20 amino-acids that are deployed into proteins, along with triplets representing the termination sequence.  Chemical modifications and histone binding (chromatin) allow cells to represent state directly on the DNA schema.  To cope with inconsistencies in the cell wide state second messenger and evolved amplification strategies are used. 
directly specifies sequences of triplet codons, a DNA triplet that represents a specific amino-acid, or termination sequence of the genetic code.   which are indirectly associated with amino acid are the building blocks of proteins.  The 20 main variants differ by the nature of their side chain.  Some are positively charged, others negatively charged.  Some are water seeking while others are fat seeking.  The genetic code mapping of DNA base pair triplets thus specifies the primary sequence of amino-acids in any protein polymer. 
side chains of proteins, a relatively long chain (polymer) of peptides.  Shorter chains of peptides are termed polypeptides.   through transcription is the process where DNA is converted into messenger m-RNA.  A complex of enzymes cooperates to bind to the DNA and generate the m-RNA copy.  There are a number of such transcription complexes which are based on RNA polymerase I, II or III. 
and translation is the process where messenger m-RNA is cross coded by Ribosomal agents and t-RNA into an amino-acid polymer. 
.  A further indirection associates the sequence with the phenotypic is the system that results from the controlled expression of the genes.  It is typically represented by a bacterial cell or the body of a multi-cell animal or plant.  The point is that the genes provide the control surface and the abstract recipe that has been used to generate the cell. 
benefits of the active site, on the external surface of folded proteins present amino acids which become catalytic structures.   structure of the proteins.  Indirectly the DNA sequence is an association to an active site and a model of the value it provides.  

The vision system is remarkable for its use of
Plans emerge in complex adaptive systems (CAS) to provide the instructions that agents use to perform actions.  The component architecture and structure of the plans is reviewed. 
schematic
associations between
This page discusses the physical foundations of complex adaptive systems (CAS).  A small set of rules is obeyed.  New [epi]phenomena then emerge.  Examples are discussed. 
physical phenomena
and
This page discusses the effect of the network on the agents participating in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  Small world and scale free networks are considered. 
network
s of models which indirectly define the high level objects of which we are aware.  Since light energy is so ubiquitous, the physical phenomena so general and the associations so indirect the
Reading and writing present a conundrum.  The reader's brain contains neural networks tuned to reading.  With imaging a written word can be followed as it progresses from the retina through a functional chain that asks: Are these letters? What do they look like? Are they a word? What does it sound like? How is it pronounced? What does it mean?  Dehaene explains the importance of education in tuning the brain's networks for reading as well as good strategies for teaching reading and countering dyslexia.  But he notes the reading networks developed far too recently to have directly evolved.  And Dehaene asks why humans are unique in developing reading and culture. 

He explains the cultural engineering that shaped writing to human vision and the exaptations and neuronal structures that enable and constrain reading and culture. 

Dehaene's arguments show how cellular, whole animal and cultural complex adaptive system (CAS) are related.  We review his explanations in CAS terms and use his insights to link cultural CAS that emerged based on reading and writing with other levels of CAS from which they emerge. 

architecture is very adaptive


Haikonen's artificial associative neurons demonstrate an additional contribution of indirection; integration's ability to generically connect representational hierarchies. 

Attacks on CAS are particularly effective when they introduce confusion into the
Agents use sensors to detect events in their environment.  This page reviews how these events become signals associated with beneficial responses in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  CAS signals emerge from the Darwinian information model.  Signals can indicate decision summaries and level of uncertainty. 
metering and filtering
of
Agents use sensors to detect events in their environment.  This page reviews how these events become signals associated with beneficial responses in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  CAS signals emerge from the Darwinian information model.  Signals can indicate decision summaries and level of uncertainty. 
signals
by
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
, resulting in poor choices of models and actions which may also feedback amplifying the problems for the system's agents. 

'In all fighting, the direct method may be used for joining battle, but indirect methods will be needed in order to secure victory'  Sun Tsu wrote in The Art of War. 

B. H. Liddell Hart provides an explanation.  'The reason has been expressed vividly in Napoleon's dictum that "the moral is to the physical as three to one".  It may be expressed scientifically by saying that, while the strength of an opposing force or country lies outwardly in its numbers and resources, these are fundamentally dependent upon stability of control, morale, and supply.  To move along the line of natural expectation consolidates the opponent's balance and thus increases his resisting power'. 

...

'In most campaigns the
This page discusses the strategy of confusing the control system of a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
dislocation of the enemy's psychological and physical balance
has been the vital prelude to a successful attempt at his overthrow. 

This dislocation has been produced by a strategic indirect approach, intentional or fortuitous.' 

In Chess both attacker and defender benefit from indirect approaches.  The application of indirect defense by Botvinnik transformed the play of a generation of masters. 

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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
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  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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