Modularity
This page describes the organizational forces that limit change.  It explains how to overcome them when necessary. 

Power& tradition holding back progress
This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
Be responsive to market dynamics
This page uses the example of HP's printer organization freeing itself from its organizational constraints to sell a printer targeted at the IBM pc user. 
The constraints are described. 
The techniques to overcome them are implied. 
Overcome reactionaries
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Product design that supports effective specification, prediction and measurement

Summary
Developing and delivering discrete modules of software works for Linux.  The approach is discussed along with the constraints
Introduction
Computer hardware design has successfully developed
This page discusses the strategy of modularity in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The benefits, mechanism and its emergence are discussed. 
modular
products for many years.  Software modularity in comparison still struggles to create predictable modular hierarchies. 
Linux modularity as a model to copy
But development of Linus Torvald's Linux, and AT&T's UNIX is a computer operating system.  It is a registered trademark of AT&T. 
before it, shows that processes that are modular can be applied to software design.  In Linux's case these processes are
Walter Shewhart's iterative development process is found in many complex adaptive systems (CAS).  The mechanism is reviewed and its value in coping with random events is explained. 
iterative
Baldwin & Clark argue that UNIX emerged from the application of inversion and porting
Plans change in complex adaptive systems (CAS) due to the action of genetic operations such as mutation, splitting and recombination.  The nature of the operations is described. 
genetic operators
to a modular design created by splitting. 

The architecture of computer hardware was studied
This page reviews the strategy of architecting an end-to-end solution in a complex adaptive system (CAS).  The mechanism and its costs and benefits are discussed. 
end-to-end
, the many failures of products were reviewed and conclusions made enabling re-factoring of the architecture so that consistent design rules could be applied.  Complex adaptive system (
This page introduces the complex adaptive system (CAS) theory frame.  The theory is positioned relative to the natural sciences.  It catalogs the laws and strategies which underpin the operation of systems that are based on the interaction of emergent agents. 
John Holland's framework for representing complexity is outlined.  Links to other key aspects of CAS theory discussed at the site are presented. 
CAS
) principles highlight the mechanism. 

When the return on investment is large enough and the system can be constrained, a software-architecture can be designed end-to-end, to enable modularity to develop. 
Problems with constraints
As change is introduced into a CAS the effects ripple through the network and the
Plans are interpreted and implemented by agents.  This page discusses the properties of agents in a complex adaptive system (CAS). 
It then presents examples of agents in different CAS.  The examples include a computer program where modeling and actions are performed by software agents.  These software agents are aggregates. 
The participation of agents in flows is introduced and some implications of this are outlined. 
agents
adapt.  So characterizing a rapidly changing system can be difficult and costly.  Constraining one can undermine the opportunity the change is bringing. 

When the system does not need rapid change constrain the scope of your solution and you can benefit from developing modular products. 
















































































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This page looks at schematic structures and their uses.  It discusses a number of examples:
  • Schematic ideas are recombined in creativity. 
  • Similarly designers take ideas and rules about materials and components and combine them. 
  • Schematic Recipes help to standardize operations. 
  • Modular components are combined into strategies for use in business plans and business models. 

As a working example it presents part of the contents and schematic details from the Adaptive Web Framework (AWF)'s operational plan. 

Finally it includes a section presenting our formal representation of schematic goals. 
Each goal has a series of associated complex adaptive system (CAS) strategy strings. 
These goals plus strings are detailed for various chess and business examples. 
Strategy
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This page uses an example to illustrate how:
  • A business can gain focus from targeting key customers,
  • Business planning activities performed by the whole organization can build awareness, empowerment and coherence. 
  • A program approach can ensure strategic alignment. 
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