Complex adaptive systems
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Emergence, adaptation and complexity 
The US sub-prime housing bubble and crash(p.24), the rapidly increasing cost of US health care(p.33), and the development of coral atolls, structures formed by polyps when the sea bed is near enough to the ocean surface that the Sun's rays can penetrate.  As the sea bed descends slowly new layers of coral are deposited keeping the top of the coral within range of the Sun light.  Over time a coral tower or atoll forms.  In warm & acidic seas the atolls collapse. 
are each good examples of effects of a complex adaptive system (CAS(p.5)).  In each case the system had many participants(p.12) interacting and responding to each other.  The participants in each system:
  • Adapt to their situation in complex ways, using a multiplicity of strategies and actions based on capabilities they were born with, and techniques they have learned,
    • The actions of each participant is interdependent
    • Changing one aspect of the system will alter other parts. 
    • Correctly predicting the result requires an accurate model(p.14) of the changes that will occur in each of the effected participants
  • Striving to capture resources: credit(p.25), effective treatments(p.34), or light, food and shelter, so they can
  • Continue with their lives and raise offspring
  • Each of the participants in the housing(p.27) and health care(p.36) networks is an aggregate of components which also respond to their local situation based on a recipe(p.28) of action
  • Each participant uses one or more recipe style plans(p.28) to define their potential actions
  • The participants, and their building blocks, repeatedly adopt and respond to strategies e.g. in housing(p.29) and health care(p.38) including: flexibility(p.20), centralization(p.20), prophylaxis(p.20), infrastructure amplifier(p.21), evolved amplifier(p.21), platform(p.21), and disruption(p.21)

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